Listen to an audio pronunciation
Listen to an audio pronunciation
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to separate)
a. to break down
La celulosa se descompondrá y el papel se volverá quebradizo.The cellulose will be broken down and the paper will become brittle.
b. to break up
Descompuse la luz con un prisma para formar un arco iris de colores.I used a prism to break up the light into a rainbow of colors.
c. to split up
Si descompones las fórmulas, podrás ver qué sucede con cada átomo.You can see what happens to each atom if you split up the formulas.
2. (to damage)
a. to break
Un virus descompuso mi computadora y ahora ni siquiera puedo encenderla.A virus broke my computer, and now I can't even turn it on.
3. (to make sick)
a. to give diarrhea
Regionalism used in the United States
(United States)
El pescado que comimos anoche me descompuso.The fish we ate yesterday gave me diarrhea.
b. to give diarrhoea (United Kingdom)
Todavía no sé qué me descompuso, si la col o el pollo al curry.I'm still not sure what gave me diarrhoea, the kale or the chicken curry.
4. (to alter one's mood)
a. to irritate
Me descompone ver cómo coquetea con el jefe para obtener un aumento.Watching her flirting with the boss for a raise really irritates me.
b. to annoy
Me descompone que trate a los meseros como si fueran sus sirvientes.It annoys me that he treats waiters as if they were his servants.
5. (to disturb)
a. to mess up (hairdo or plan)
El viento descompuso mi peinado y tuve que volver a la peluquería a que me lo hicieran de nuevo.The wind messed up my hair, and I had to return to the hairdresser's to get it done again.
b. to upset (plan)
El escándalo por corrupción descompuso su intención de postularse a presidente.The corruption scandal upset his plans to run for president.
c. to disrupt (communication)
Un apagón repentino descompuso la comunicación y tuvimos que esperar una hora para volver a hablar.A sudden blackout disrupted the communication and we had to wait for an hour to continue talking.
6. (mathematics)
a. to factorize
En este ejercicio, tienes que descomponer los trinomios con un factor común.In this exercise you have to factorize the trinomials with a common factor.
b. to break down
Intenta usar la división sintética para descomponer la función.Try using synthetic division to break down the function.
7. (to putrefy)
a. to decompose
La naturaleza había descompuesto el cadáver hasta tal punto que la policía no pudo moverlo entero.Nature had decomposed the body to a degree that the police couldn't move it in one piece.
b. to make rot
Dejar las cerezas afuera en el calor las descompondrán.Leaving the cherries sitting outside in the heat will make them rot.
A pronominal verb always uses a reflexive pronoun. (e.g. Te ves cansado.).
8. (to break down)
Regionalism used in Latin America: all the countries in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Does not include Spain.
(Latin America)
a. to stop working
¿Cuál es la hora exacta? Mi reloj se descompuso.What time is it exactly? My watch stopped working.
9. (to putrefy)
a. to rot
El soldado no podía soportar ver los cadáveres de sus amigos descomponiéndose en las trincheras.The private couldn't stand watching the corpses of his friends rotting in the trenches.
b. to decompose
El olor repugnante provenía de la puerta de al lado, donde el cuerpo del dueño se estaba descomponiendo.The foul smell came from next door, where the body of the owner was decomposing.
10. (to fall ill)
a. to have an attack of diarrhea
Regionalism used in the United States
(United States)
Me descompuse y tuve que abandonar el aula.I had an attack of diarrhea and had to leave the classroom.
b. to have an attack of diarrhoea (United Kingdom)
Estaba en una cita en un restaurante y me descompuse. ¡Qué vergüenza!I was on a date at a restaurant and I had an attack of diarrhoea. So embarrassing!
c. to feel sick
No tomes agua del grifo. Yo lo hice y me descompuse.Don't drink water from the tap. I did it and it made me feel sick.
11. (to alter one's mood)
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
Me descompongo cada vez que escucho la canción favorita de mi ex.Every time I hear my ex's favorite song, it really gets to me.
Mi mamá se descompuso cuando le dije que había embarazado a mi novia.My mother's face fell when I told her that I got my girlfriend pregnant.
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A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (pudrir; fruta)
a. to rot
2. (cadáver)
a. to decompose
la humedad descompone ciertos alimentosdampness makes some foods rot
3. (dividir)
a. to break down
descomponer algo ento break something down into
4. (desordenar)
a. to mess up
5. (estropear)
a. to damage, to break
la cena le descompuso el vientrethe dinner gave him an upset stomach
creo que comí algo que me descompuso (el cuerpo)I think I ate something that didn't agree with me
6. (enojar)
a. to annoy
A pronominal verb always uses a reflexive pronoun. (e.g. Te ves cansado.).
7. (pudrirse; fruta)
a. to rot
8. (cadáver)
a. to decompose
9. (turbarse, alterarse)
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
se le descompuso el rostrohe looked distraught
10. (irritarse)
a. to get (visibly) annoyed
11. (averiarse)
a. to break down
12. (estómago)
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
se me descompuso el estómagoI had a stomach upset
Copyright © 2006 Harrap Publishers Limited
descomponerdescompuesto (participio_de_pasado)
transitive verb
1 (dividir) [+palabra, frase] to break down; break up
descomponer una palabra en sílabas descomponer una frase en sintagmas
[+sustancia, molécula, número] to break down
descomponer un número en factores primos descompuso la película en fotogramas
[+luz] to break up; split up
descomponer la luz blanca en colores
tienes que descomponer el informe en partes you have to break down the report into separate parts
2 (pudrir) [+alimento] to rot; [+cadáver, cuerpo] to decompose
el calor descompuso los alimentos el calor del verano descompuso el cuerpo rápidamente
3 (alterar)
la mala noticia lo descompuso the bad news really shook him; me descompone tanto desorden all this mess really gets to me (familiar) o irritates me; las especias me descomponen el vientre spicy food gives me diarrhoea o diarrhea; (EEUU)
4 (romper) to break
5 [+peinado] to disturb; disarrange; [+planes] to upset; disrupt
pronominal verb
1 (pudrirse) to decompose; rot
2 (alterarse)
me descompongo cuando la gente llega tarde
me descompongo con tanto ruido all this noise gets to me (familiar) o irritates me; se le descompuso el cuerpo del frío the cold made her feel unwell; se me descompuso el vientre I had an attack of diarrhoea o diarrhea; (EEUU) se le descompuso la cara cuando se lo dije her face fell when I told her
3 (S. Cone) (vomitar) to be sick; (llorar) to break down
4 especialmente (México) (romperse) to break down
descomponerse el brazo (And) to put one's arm out of joint
Collins Complete Spanish Electronic Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers 2011
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