Grammar Guide
Verbs
Past Participle in Spanish

Past Participle in Spanish

Quick Answer

A past participle (participio) is a very useful verb form that can function as an adjective or as part of a perfect tense when used in conjunction with the verb haber.

Regular Past Participle Spanish Forms

To form the past participle of a regular verb, you drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and add -ado to the stem of -ar verbs and -ido to the stem of -er and -ir verbs. This is equivalent to adding -ed to many verbs in English.

How to Form the Regular Past Participles

Verb TypeInfinitive ExampleStem ExamplePast Participle Example
-ar verb
hablar
habl-
hablado
-er verbs
tener
ten-
tenido
-ir verb
vivir
viv-
vivido

Irregular Past Participle Spanish Forms

Quite a few Spanish verbs have irregular past participles. In the table below you'll find a few of the most common ones. For a more exhaustive list of irregular past participles, click here.

InfinitivePast ParticipleEnglish
abrir
abierto
open/opened
decir
dicho
said
escribir
escrito
written
hacer
hecho
done/completed
ver
visto
seen

Past Participle Uses

1. Perfect Tenses

There are quite a few perfect tenses in Spanish, and they all use past participles.

Many of the perfect tenses use a version of the following formula:

Perfect Formula

haber + past participle

The examples below show a past participle being used in the present perfect and the future perfect.

¿Has viajado mucho a Uruguay?
Have you traveled a lot to Uruguay?
Habré leído todos sus libros.
I will have read all of his books.

2. Adjectives

Past participles are commonly used as adjectives in Spanish. When this is the case, they must agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. The following examples show past participles being used as adjectives.

Me encantan los huevos revueltos.
I love scrambled eggs.
Salimos por la puerta abierta.
We left through the open door.

Predicative Adjective

Predicative adjectives are adjectives used in conjunction with a linking verb, such as ser (to be), estar (to be) , or parecer (to seem). Predicative adjectives must also agree with the nouns they modify in gender and number.

Mi novela favorita fue escrita por Gabriel García Márquez.
My favorite novel was written by Gabriel Garcia Marquez.
Las puertas están cerradas.
The doors are closed.
Esta manzana parece podrida.
This apple seems rotten.

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