Spanish Verb Types
There are several different verb types in Spanish, including transitive verbs, intransitive verbs, pronominal verbs, reflexive verbs, and reciprocal verbs. It's helpful to know what they are and how they're different. Let's get started!
Transitive verbs are verbs that need a direct object. A direct object is essentially the person or thing the subject performs an action upon.
You can yourself ask the questions What? or Who? to determine what the direct object of a verb is.
Transitivity Profile: Tener
Transitivity test: Let's try the transitivity test out on this example:
- I have what? - An apple (una manzana).
So, una manzana is the direct object of the transitive verb tener.
Transitivity Profile: Comer
Transitivity test: Let's try the transitivity test out on comer.
- He ate what? - A cookie (una galleta).
So, una galleta (a cookie) is the direct object of the transitive verb comer.
Transitivity Profile: Sorprender
Transitivity test: Let's try our handy transitivity test on this verb.
- Who did we surprise? - My boyfriend (mi novio).
So, mi novio is the direct object of the transitive verb sorprender.
Intransitive verbs are verbs that do not need a direct object. Intransitive verbs often form one-word sentences in Spanish.
- You can't ask either What? or Who? about this sentence. Cada día only tells you how often. The sentence could also just have been one word: Corre.(He/She runs.) Therefore, this verb is intransitive in the sense shown.
- You can't answer ask either What? or Who? about this sentence. En su cama only tells you where. The sentence could also just have been one word: Duerme.(He/She sleeps.) Therefore, this verb is intransitive in the sense shown.
- You can't answer ask either What? or Who? about this sentence in Spanish. The subject is los plátanos (bananas), which please me (an indirect object). Confused? Check out our article on verbs like gustar.
Pronominal Verbs are often incorrectly called reflexive verbs, when in reality reflexive verbs are just one type of pronominal verb. Reciprocal verbs are another type of pronominal verb you'll run across.
With reflexive verbs like those in the examples below, the subject performs some action for or upon him/herself.
With reciprocal verbs like those below, two subjects perform the same action on each other.