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Verbs
Irregular Spanish Past Participles

Irregular Spanish Past Participles

Overview

There are quite a few irregular past participles in Spanish, though many of them only require the addition of a written accent.

Accented Past Participle Forms

If an -er or -ir verb stem ends in a vowel, then the past participle is written with an accent over the i.

InfinitiveVerb StemPast Participle
atraer
 
atra-atraído
caer
 
ca-caído
creer
 
cre-creído
leer
 
le-leído
oír
 
o-oído
poseer
 
pose-poseído
reír
 
re-reído
sonreír
 
sonre-sonreído
traer
 
tra-traído

Irregular Past Participles

A few verbs in Spanish have irregular forms that you will need to memorize. Fortunately, Spanish has far fewer irregular past participles than English. This, however, is not an exhaustive list.

InfinitivePast Participle
abrir
 
abierto
 
morir
 
muerto
 
absolver
 
absuelto
 
poner
 
puesto
 
cubrir
 
cubierto
 
prender
 
preso
 
decir
 
dicho
 
romper
 
roto
 
escribir
 
escrito
 
resolver
 
resuelto
 
satisfacer
 
satisfecho
 
hacer
 
hecho
 
ver
 
visto
 
volver
 
vuelto
 
escribir
 
escrito
 
hacer
 
hecho
 

Many of these words can be used with prefixes to form other verbs with irregular past participles.

Base VerbVerb + PrefixPast Participle
escribir
describir
 
descrito
 
escribir
transcribir
 
transcrito
 
escribir
inscribir
 
inscrito
 
volver
revolver
 
revuelto
 
volver
devolver
 
devuelto
 
volver
desenvolver
 
desenvuelto
 
hacer
deshacer
 
deshecho
 
hacer
contrahacer
 
contrahecho
 
hacer
rehacer
 
rehecho
 

Past Participle or Adjective?

Some adjectives are quite easy to confuse with verbal past participles, but can't be used in compound tenses (like the present perfect). Here are a few examples.

InfinitiveAdjectiveVerb Past Participle Form
absorber
 
absorto
 
absorbido
 
bendecir
 
bendito
 
bendecido
 
confundir
 
confuso
 
confundido
 
corromper
 
corrupto
 
corrompido
 
despertar
 
despierto
 
despertado
 
maldecir
 
maldito
 
maldecido
 
poseer
 
poseso
 
poseído
 
presumir
 
presunto
 
presumido
 
suspender
 
suspenso
 
suspendido
 

Past Participle vs. Adjective

¿Has despertado a tu mamá?
Have you awoken your mother?
 
Los niños están despiertos.
The children are awake.
 

According to the Real Academia Española, only three verbs have two acceptable past participle forms, both of which can be used in perfect tenses:

  • imprimir  (Past participles: imprimido , impreso )
  • freír  (Past participles: freído , frito )
  • proveer  (Past participles: proveído , provisto )

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