Quick answer
"Over" is a preposition which is often translated as "encima de", and "down" is an adverb which is often translated as "abajo". Learn more about the difference between "over" and "down" below.
over(
o
-
vuhr
)
A preposition is a word that indicates the relationship between a noun and another word (e.g. He ran through the door.).
1. (above)
a. encima de
There was a mosquito net over the bed.Había un mosquitero encima de la cama.
b. por encima de
There's a painting of Venice over our bed.Hay un cuadro de Venecia por encima de nuestra cama.
c. arriba de
The light over the sink is burned out.La luz arriba de la pila está fundida.
d. sobre
There's a mistletoe over the doorway into the living room.Hay un muérdago sobre la puerta a la sala de estar.
2. (in excess of)
a. más de
I made over a hundred dollars working from home.Gané más de cien dólares trabajando desde casa.
b. mayor de
You have to be over 21 to be allowed to drink alcohol in this country.Hay que ser mayor de 21 años para poder beber alcohol en este país.
c. por encima de
Our sales increased over two percent last quarter.Nuestras ventas aumentaron por encima de un dos por ciento el pasado trimestre.
3. (during)
a. durante
I'd rather speak about it over dinner.Prefiero hablar de eso durante la cena.
b. mientras
They reviewed the contract over lunch to make sure that everything was satisfactory.Repasaron el contrato mientras almorzaban para comprobar que todo fuera satisfactorio.
4. (by means of)
a. por
It's not safe for us to talk about this over the phone.No es seguro hablar de esto por teléfono.
5. (because of)
a. por
I don't want to argue over minutia. Let's get to the important issue.No quiero discutir por detalles minuciosos. Pasamos a lo importante.
b. sobre
There was some controversy over the company's new direction.Hubo algo de polémica sobre la nueva dirección de la empresa.
6. (mathematics)
a. sobre
Two over eight is one quarter.Dos sobre ocho es igual a un cuarto.
7. (in a higher rank)
a. por encima de
I got tired of having a boss over me, so I started my own company.Me cansé de tener a un jefe por encima de mí, pues fundé mi propia empresa.
An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or other adverbs (e.g. to run quickly, very tired).
8. (across)
a. por encima de
We'll be going over the bridge in five minutes.Pasaremos por encima del puente en cinco minutos.
b.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
I looked over at my husband and he was asleep.Miré a mi esposo y estaba dormido.
My family came over for Hanukkah.Mi familia vino para la Hanukkah.
9. (indicating repetition)
a. de nuevo
This isn't right. You'll have to do it over.Esto no está bien. Tendrás que hacerlo de nuevo.
b. otra vez
He told the same story over and over.Contó la misma historia una y otra vez.
10. (excessively)
a. demasiado
Todd was accused of being over careful when planning his trip to the jungle.A Todd se le acusaba de ser demasiado cauteloso al momento de planificar su excursión a la jungla.
11. (in or to a certain place)
a. allí
I'll be over in about an hour. Should I bring anything?Estaré allí en como una hora. ¿Traigo algo?
b. aquí
I'm at the restaurant, but I don't see you. - We're over here by the bar.Estoy en el restaurante, pero no los veo. - Estamos aquí por la barra.
12. (on the back)
a. al dorso
See over for dosage information.Véase al dorso para información de dosis.
An adjective is a word that describes a noun (e.g. the big dog).
13. (completed; often used with "be")
a. acabar
The movie isn't over yet.Todavía no ha acabado la película.
b. terminar
This conversation is over.Esta conversación terminó.
An interjection is a short utterance that expresses emotion, hesitation, or protest (e.g. Wow!).
14. (telecommunications)
a. cambio
Mayday! Mayday! We are sinking. Over!¡Mayday! ¡Mayday! Nos estamos hundiendo. ¡Cambio!
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down(
daun
)
An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or other adverbs (e.g. to run quickly, very tired).
1. (vertical direction)
a. abajo
She lives two floors down.Ella vive dos pisos más abajo.
2. (in exclamations)
a. abajo
Down with the government!¡Abajo el gobierno!
b. baja
Down, Fido! Get off of that sofa!¡Bájate, Fido! ¡Bájate del sofá!
A preposition is a word that indicates the relationship between a noun and another word (e.g. He ran through the door.).
3. (direction)
a. por
You can go down the service stairs.Puedes irte por la escalera de servicio.
4. (along)
a. por
They walked down the avenue holding hands.Caminaron por la avenida tomados de la mano.
An adjective is a word that describes a noun (e.g. the big dog).
5. (sad)
a. deprimido
I'm a bit down because my grandfather is sick.Estoy un poco deprimido porque mi abuelo está enfermo.
6. (not functioning)
a.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
The website has been down for three hours.El sitio web lleva tres horas sin funcionar.
We pay an arm and a leg, and the internet is always down!Pagamos un ojo de la cara y, ¡el internet nunca funciona!
A noun is a word referring to a person, animal, place, thing, feeling or idea (e.g. man, dog, house).
7. (material)
a. el plumón
(m) means that a noun is masculine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
I can't use a comforter made with down because I'm a vegan.No puedo usar un edredón de plumón porque soy vegana.
8. (hair)
a. el vello
(m) means that a noun is masculine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
(on body)
The down on the back of his neck is blond.El vello que tiene en la nuca es rubio.
b. el bozo
(m) means that a noun is masculine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
(on face)
That stuff on your upper lip is more down than a real mustache.Eso que tienes encima del labio es más bozo que un bigote verdadero.
9. (American football)
a. el down
(m) means that a noun is masculine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
That's a first down for Washington.Es un primer down para Washington.
b. la oportunidad
(f) means that a noun is feminine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
They haven't converted a third down all game.No han convertido una tercera oportunidad en todo el partido.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
10. (to cause to fall)
a. derribar
They downed the enemy aircraft with one shot.Derribaron el avión del enemigo con un solo disparo.
11. (to drink quickly)
a. terminar
He downed the soda and ran out the door.Terminó el refresco y salió corriendo por la puerta.
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