Quick answer
"Cleave" is a transitive verb which is often translated as "hender", and "split" is a noun which is often translated as "la ruptura". Learn more about the difference between "cleave" and "split" below.
cleave
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1.
A word or phrase restricted in usage to literature or established writing (e.g. sex, once upon a time).
(literary)
(to split)
a. hender
The knife smoothly cleaved Peter's skin.La navaja hendió suavemente la piel de Peter.
b. hendir
He was found with his skull cleaved by a tomahawk.Lo encontraron con el cráneo hendido por un hacha de guerra.
c. partir
Once the boar is roasted, one of the cooks cleaves the meat with intense ferocity.Una vez que el jabalí está asado, uno de los cocineros lo parte con intensa ferocidad.
2.
A word or phrase restricted in usage to literature or established writing (e.g. sex, once upon a time).
(literary)
(to pass through)
a. hendir
A ray of light cleft the darkness of the room.Un rayo de luz hendió la oscuridad de la sala.
b. hender
The arrow cleaves the air with a whoosh.La flecha hiende el aire con un zumbido.
c. surcar
The boat was cleaving the clear waters of the bay.El barco surcaba las aguas transparentes de la bahía.
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split
A noun is a word referring to a person, animal, place, thing, feeling or idea (e.g. man, dog, house).
1. (rift)
a. la ruptura
(f) means that a noun is feminine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
After the incident of March 14th, there was a split in the group.Después del incidente del 14 de marzo, hubo una ruptura en el grupo.
b. la escisión
(f) means that a noun is feminine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
A theological disagreement led to a split in the church.Un desacuerdo teológico llevó a una escisión en la iglesia.
c. la separación
(f) means that a noun is feminine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
The couple's split after seven years of marriage made the front pages.La separación de la pareja tras siete años de matrimonio salió en las primeras planas.
2. (tear)
a. la raja
(f) means that a noun is feminine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
Her skirt has a long split from floor to waist.Su falda tiene una raja larga desde el piso hasta la cintura.
b. la abertura
(f) means that a noun is feminine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
The paramedics cut a split in his pants leg to see his broken leg.Los paramédicos le hicieron una abertura en el pantalón para revisarle la pierna rota.
3. (crack)
a. la grieta
(f) means that a noun is feminine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
They went through a split in the rock that opened into a cavern.Pasaron por una grieta en la piedra que se abría a una caverna.
b. la rajadura
(f) means that a noun is feminine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
There is a split in the wooden patio deck.Hay una rajadura en la cubierta de madera del patio.
4. (gymnastic maneuver)
a. abrirse de piernas
She slipped on the ice and accidentally did a split.Se resbaló en el hielo y se abrió completamente de piernas.
b. hacer el spagat
Regionalism used in Spain
(Spain)
They all do the splits at the end of the routine.Todas hacen el spagat al final de la rutina.
5. (bottle)
a. el cuarto de botella
(m) means that a noun is masculine. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine (like la mujer or la luna) or masculine (like el hombre or el sol).
(of champagne or wine)
Let’s just order a split instead of a whole bottle.Vamos a pedir un cuarto de botella en lugar de una entera.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
6. (to break)
a. partir
The lightning split the flag pole.El rayo partió el mástil de la bandera.
b. desintegrar
Ernest Rutherford was the first person to split an atom.Ernest Rutherford fue el primero que desintegró un átomo.
c. abrir
She split her pants while she was working out and nobody told her.Se abrió los pantalones mientras hacía gimnasia y nadie le avisó.
7. (to share)
a. repartir
They split their winnings among the four of them.Repartieron sus ganancias entre los cuatro.
b. dividir
The campers split their food among the members of the group.Los campistas dividieron los alimentos entre los miembros del grupo.
8. (to divide into factions)
a. dividir
The ruling party succeeded in splitting the opposition.El partido gobernante logró dividir la oposición.
b. escindir
The debate over homosexual clergy split the church.El debate sobre los clérigos homosexuales escindió la iglesia.
9. (to distribute)
a. dividir
We split the teams into eight groups for the tournament.Dividimos los equipos en ocho grupos para el torneo.
An intransitive verb is one that does not require a direct object (e.g. The man sneezed.).
10. (to come apart)
a. rajarse
The watermelon split open when it fell on the ground.La sandía se rajó cuando cayó al suelo.
b. abrirse
The coat was too small and the back split when he put it on.El saco era demasiado pequeño y la espalda se abrió cuando se lo puso.
c. partirse
His head split open when he bumped into a low doorway.Se partió la cabeza al pegarse contra un vano de puerta bajo.
d. romperse
The house split in two because of the earthquake.La casa se rompió en dos por el temblor.
11. (to experience great pain)
a. estallar (head)
My head has been splitting since I got up.Mi cabeza está estallando desde que me levanté.
12. (to fracture)
a. dividirse
The left split and paved the way for the right's victory.Las izquierdas se dividieron y allanaron el camino para la victoria de la derecha.
b. escindirse
They claim to be Social Democrats, but they split from a right-wing party.Dicen ser socialdemócratas, pero se escindieron de un partido de derechas.
13.
A very informal word or phrase used by a particular group or community as a substitute for standard language (e.g. joint, john).
(slang)
(to leave)
Regionalism used in the United States
(United States)
a. largarse
Let’s split. - Where do you want to go? - Let’s go to the movies.Larguémonos. - ¿A dónde quieres ir? - Vamos al cine.
b. abrirse
This is too dangerous. I’m going to split.Esto es demasiado peligroso. Me voy a abrir.
14. (to form groups; used with "into")
a. repartirse
The students split into teams to play soccer.Los estudiantes se repartieron en equipos para jugar al fútbol.
An adjective is a word that describes a noun (e.g. the big dog).
15. (cracked)
a. partido
How did you get that split lip? - I had a fight at school.¿De dónde salió ese labio partido? - Me peleé en la escuela.
b. hendido
Cattle, deer, goat, and sheep all have split hooves.Los bovinos, los ciervos, las cabras y las ovejas tienen las pezuñas hendidas.
16. (divided)
a. dividido
The committee is split regarding the best course of action.El comité está dividido respecto de cuál es el mejor curso de acción.
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