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Quick answer
"By" is a preposition which is often translated as "por", and "over" is a preposition which is often translated as "encima de". Learn more about the difference between "by" and "over" below.
by(
bay
)
A preposition is a word that indicates the relationship between a noun and another word (e.g. He ran through the door.).
1. (indicating agent or cause)
a. por
The bridge was destroyed by the flood waters.El puente quedó destruido por las inundaciones.
The house was built by an architect.La casa fue construida por un arquitecto.
2. (indicating author or creator)
a. de
We're reading a book by Octavio Paz in Spanish class.Estamos leyendo un libro de Octavio Paz en la clase de español.
3. (indicating location)
a. junto a
The mayor built his house by the park.El alcalde construyó su casa junto al parque.
b. al lado de
I waited by the door until my name was called.Esperé al lado de la puerta hasta que me llamaron.
4. (indicating way or path)
a. por
The cowboy came by the old buffalo trail.El vaquero llegó por la vieja senda de los bisontes.
5. (indicating movement near)
a. por delante de
We drove by your house yesterday.Ayer pasamos por delante de tu casa.
6. (indicating short visit)
a. por
I’ll stop by the store and get some eggs.Pasaré por la tienda a comprar huevos.
7. (indicating final destination)
a. a
We’re going to go by my mom’s house for lunch on Saturday.Vamos a ir a la casa de mi mamá a comer el sábado.
8. (indicating time limit)
a. antes de
Since I wasn't home by 10, my dad will ground me.Como no llegué a casa antes de las 10, mi papá me va a castigar.
b. para
If the package hasn't arrived by Tuesday, we should contact the sender.Si no ha llegado el paquete para el martes, deberíamos contactar al remitente.
9. (indicating time span)
a. de
By day he's a tailor and by night he's a dancer.De día es sastre y de noche es bailarín.
10. (indicating means)
a. mediante
The energy produced by fusion is emitted as light.La energía producida mediante fusión se emite como luz.
b. por
The books are classified by subject.Los libros están clasificados por tema.
c. en (of transportation)
Would you rather go by car or by train?¿Preferirías ir en coche o en tren?
11. (according to)
a. según
It's noon by my watch.Es mediodía según mi reloj.
b. conforme a
By the new rules, there is no parking allowed near the fire station.Conforme a las nuevas normas, está prohibido estacionarse cerca de la estación de bomberos.
c. por
It's all right by me.Por mí no hay problema.
12. (mathematics)
a. por (multiplication)
Multiply three by twelve.Multiplica tres por doce.
b. entre (division)
Ten divided by five is two.Diez dividido entre cinco son dos.
13. (in compass directions)
a.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
The wind is blowing east by southeast.El viento sopla estesudeste.
We were sailing north by northwest.Navegábamos en dirección nornoroeste.
14. (in measurements)
a. por
The new deck will measure ten feet by eight feet.Le nueva plataforma tendrá una medida de diez pies por ocho.
15. (indicating rate or amount)
a. por
Are you paid by the hour or by the job?¿Te pagan por hora o por trabajo?
She broke the record by two seconds.Batió el récord por dos segundos.
b. en (with percentages)
The price has gone up by 50%.El precio ha subido en un 50%.
16. (with gerund)
a.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
She ended by thanking everyone who had helped.Terminó dando las gracias a todos los que habían ayudado.
They lowered their prices a lot, and by doing so they expected to fill the store with customers.Bajaron muchísimo los precios, y con esto pretendían llenar la tienda de clientes.
An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or other adverbs (e.g. to run quickly, very tired).
17. (nearby)
a. cerca
Is the police station close by?¿Está cerca la comisaría?
18. (past)
a.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
Our neighbor passed by without saying hello.Nuestro vecino pasó sin saludarnos.
You don’t own the street. Let me by!No eres dueño de la calle. ¡Déjame pasar!
19. (on a short visit)
a.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
I'll stop by later.Me paso más tarde por ahí.
Your dad came by today.Tu papá pasó por aquí hoy.
20. (on one side)
a.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
Can you keep the dress by for me? I’ll come back and pay for it later.¿Me puede apartar el vestido? Volveré luego a pagarlo.
I have a little money put by for emergencies.Tengo ahorrado un poco de dinero para emergencias.
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over(
o
-
vuhr
)
A preposition is a word that indicates the relationship between a noun and another word (e.g. He ran through the door.).
1. (above)
a. encima de
There was a mosquito net over the bed.Había un mosquitero encima de la cama.
b. por encima de
There's a painting of Venice over our bed.Hay un cuadro de Venecia por encima de nuestra cama.
c. arriba de
The light over the sink is burned out.La luz arriba de la pila está fundida.
d. sobre
There's a mistletoe over the doorway into the living room.Hay un muérdago sobre la puerta a la sala de estar.
2. (in excess of)
a. más de
I made over a hundred dollars working from home.Gané más de cien dólares trabajando desde casa.
b. mayor de
You have to be over 21 to be allowed to drink alcohol in this country.Hay que ser mayor de 21 años para poder beber alcohol en este país.
c. por encima de
Our sales increased over two percent last quarter.Nuestras ventas aumentaron por encima de un dos por ciento el pasado trimestre.
3. (during)
a. durante
I'd rather speak about it over dinner.Prefiero hablar de eso durante la cena.
b. mientras
They reviewed the contract over lunch to make sure that everything was satisfactory.Repasaron el contrato mientras almorzaban para comprobar que todo fuera satisfactorio.
4. (by means of)
a. por
It's not safe for us to talk about this over the phone.No es seguro hablar de esto por teléfono.
5. (because of)
a. por
I don't want to argue over minutia. Let's get to the important issue.No quiero discutir por detalles minuciosos. Pasamos a lo importante.
b. sobre
There was some controversy over the company's new direction.Hubo algo de polémica sobre la nueva dirección de la empresa.
6. (mathematics)
a. sobre
Two over eight is one quarter.Dos sobre ocho es igual a un cuarto.
7. (in a higher rank)
a. por encima de
I got tired of having a boss over me, so I started my own company.Me cansé de tener a un jefe por encima de mí, pues fundé mi propia empresa.
An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or other adverbs (e.g. to run quickly, very tired).
8. (across)
a. por encima de
We'll be going over the bridge in five minutes.Pasaremos por encima del puente en cinco minutos.
b.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
I looked over at my husband and he was asleep.Miré a mi esposo y estaba dormido.
My family came over for Hanukkah.Mi familia vino para la Hanukkah.
9. (indicating repetition)
a. de nuevo
This isn't right. You'll have to do it over.Esto no está bien. Tendrás que hacerlo de nuevo.
b. otra vez
He told the same story over and over.Contó la misma historia una y otra vez.
10. (excessively)
a. demasiado
Todd was accused of being over careful when planning his trip to the jungle.A Todd se le acusaba de ser demasiado cauteloso al momento de planificar su excursión a la jungla.
11. (in or to a certain place)
a. allí
I'll be over in about an hour. Should I bring anything?Estaré allí en como una hora. ¿Traigo algo?
b. aquí
I'm at the restaurant, but I don't see you. - We're over here by the bar.Estoy en el restaurante, pero no los veo. - Estamos aquí por la barra.
12. (on the back)
a. al dorso
See over for dosage information.Véase al dorso para información de dosis.
An adjective is a word that describes a noun (e.g. the big dog).
13. (completed; often used with "be")
a. acabar
The movie isn't over yet.Todavía no ha acabado la película.
b. terminar
This conversation is over.Esta conversación terminó.
An interjection is a short utterance that expresses emotion, hesitation, or protest (e.g. Wow!).
14. (telecommunications)
a. cambio
Mayday! Mayday! We are sinking. Over!¡Mayday! ¡Mayday! Nos estamos hundiendo. ¡Cambio!
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