Just like in English, Spanish nouns can be singular or plural. The noun endings tell you the number (singular, plural) of the noun you are talking about. Plural nouns will almost always end in -s or -es. There are only 2 rules (+ exceptions) to make any noun plural:

1. Nouns that end in an unstressed vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or é, add -s

  • la pera -> las peras
  • la bota -> las botas
  • el sonido -> los sonidos
  • el mono -> los monos
  • el café -> los cafés
  • el hincapié -> los hincapiés

2. Nouns that end in a consonant, -y, or a stressed vowel (á, í, ó, ú) that isn´t é, add -es

  • el botón -> los botones
  • el rey -> los reyes
  • la majá -> las majaes
  • el maní -> los maníes
  • el bongó -> los bongoes
  • el ñandú -> los ñandúes

When Do I Use the Tilde?

Nouns that end in é, í, or ú retain their tildes in the plural form. Nouns that end in á or ó drop the tildes. 

The exceptions:
When the noun ends in -z, you must change the -z to a -c and then add -es to the end.

  • la luz -> las luces
  • la paz -> las paces
  • el pez -> los peces

When the noun ends in -c, you must change the -c to -qu. When the noun ends in -g, change it to -gu and add -es.

  • el frac -> los fraques
  • el zigzag -> los zigzagues

When the noun ends in an -s or -x and the last syllable is unstressed, only the article changes to plural. The object stays the same.

  • el análisis -> los análisis
  • el jueves -> los jueves
  • el tórax -> los tórax

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Category: number | Keywords: nouns, definite articles, tilde, written accent, plural