Spanish Grammar Overview 
Cheat Sheet
A pronoun is a word that stands in for a noun (e.g. she).
1. (indirect object)
a. him
Le di uno de mis libros.I gave him one of my books.
b. her
Le dije que nos estaban esperando.I told her that they were waiting for us.
c. you (formal)
Le advertí de que no viniera a las siete.I told you not to come at seven.
d. it
Le hice una cubierta nueva.I gave it a new cover.
2. (direct object)
Regionalism used in Spain
a. him
Le besé apasionadamente.I kissed him with passion.
b. you (formal)
Lo siento si le lastimé.I'm sorry if I hurt you.
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pronoun personal
se is used instead of le when it is used as an indirect object pronoun before lo, la, los or las (e.g. se lo dije I said it to him/her; dáselos give them to him/her).
1. (complemento indirecto) (to) him (hombre) ; (to) her (mujer) ; to it (cosa) ; to you (usted)
  • le expliqué el motivo I explained the reason to him/her
  • le tengo miedo I'm afraid of him/her
  • ya le dije lo que pasaría I told you what would happen (a usted)
2. (complemento directo) him (peninsular Spanish); you (usted)
Copyright © 2006 Harrap Publishers Limited
personal pronoun
1 (directo) (a él) him; (a usted) you
no le veo I don't see him; ¿le ayudo? shall I help you?
2 (indirecto) (a él, ella) (to) him; (to) her; (to) it; (a usted) (to) you
le hablé I spoke to him; I spoke to her; quiero darle esto I want to give you this; le he comprado esto I bought this for you; una de las mejores actuaciones que le hemos visto one of the best performances we have seen from him; no se le conoce otra obra no other work of his is known
Collins Complete Spanish Electronic Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers 2011
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