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Quick answer
"Extraviar" is a transitive verb which is often translated as "to lose", and "perder" is a transitive verb which is also often translated as "to lose". Learn more about the difference between "extraviar" and "perder" below.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to be unable to find)
a. to lose
Extravié las llaves. ¿Las viste en algún lado?I lost my keys. Have you seen them anywhere?
b. to mislay
Lucía tuvo que ir a la embajada porque extravió su pasaporte.Lucia had to go to the embassy because she mislaid her passport.
c. to misplace
Extraviaste el martillo porque no lo pusiste en la caja de herramientas.You misplaced the hammer because you didn't put it in the tool box.
2. (to disorient)
a. to mislead
El candidato extravió a los votantes con información mal investigada y tácticas de intimidación.The candidate misled voters with poorly researched information and scare tactics.
A pronominal verb always uses a reflexive pronoun. (e.g. Te ves cansado.).
3. (to become lost)
a. to get lost
Un niño pequeño se extravió en el centro comercial, pero encontramos a su madre rápidamente.A little boy got lost in the mall, but we found his mother quickly.
b. to lose one's way
Si te adentras en el bosque sin mapa ni brújula, te extraviarás.If you go into the woods without a map and compass, you'll lose your way.
c. to go astray
El pastor salió a buscar la oveja que se extravió.The shepherd went out to find the sheep that went astray.
d. to go missing
Se extravió mi diploma del secundario. Debe de estar en la casa de mis padres.My high-school diploma went missing. It must be at my parents' house.
e. to stray
¡No dejes que el perro se extravíe!Don't let the dog stray!
4. (to fall into evil ways)
a. to stray
Miguel se extravió del buen camino y comenzó a llevar una vida delictiva.Miguel strayed from the path of righteousness and started living a life of crime.
b. to be led astray
No sé cómo se extravió, pero ahora no hace más que mentir y robar.I don't know how he was led astray, but now all he does is lie and steal.
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A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to misplace)
a. to lose
¿Cuántas veces has perdido tu celular?How many times have you lost your cellphone?
2. (to be defeated)
a. to lose
Si perdemos otro partido, no nos clasificaremos para la final.If we lose another match, we will not qualify for the finals.
3. (to throw away)
a. to miss
Perdiste la oportunidad de conseguir una entrada gratis.You missed the chance to get a free ticket.
b. to waste
Le hiciste perder demasiado tiempo.You made him waste so much time.
4. (not to catch)
a. to miss
El atasco me hizo perder el vuelo.The traffic jam made me miss my flight.
5. (to reduce)
a. to lose
Va perdiendo peso poco a poco.He's steadily losing weight.
6. (to lose to death or destruction)
a. to lose
Perdimos mucho por la guerra.We lost so much in the war.
7. (to leak)
a. to lose
Mi calentador sigue perdiendo agua.My boiler keeps losing water.
A reflexive verb is a verb that indicates that the subject performs an action on itself (e.g. Miguel se lava.).
8. (to fail to find the way)
a. to get lost
Mi perro se perdió en el bosque.My dog got lost in the woods.
9. (to not understand)
a. to be lost
No presté atención y ahora me perdí.I didn't pay attention and now I'm lost.
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