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"Estar lleno" is an intransitive verb phrase which is often translated as "to be full", and "ser" is a copular verb which is often translated as "to be". Learn more about the difference between "estar lleno" and "ser" below.
estar lleno(
ehs
-
tahr
 
yeh
-
noh
)
An intransitive verb phrase is a phrase that combines a verb with a preposition or other particle and does not require a direct object (e.g. Everybody please stand up.).
intransitive verb phrase
1. (to be filled to capacity)
a. to be full
El restaurante estaba lleno y no habíamos hecho reserva.The restaurant was full and we hadn't made a reservation.
2. (to be scattered with; used with "de")
a. to be full of
Esa carretera está llena de baches. Mejor que vayamos por la autopista.That road is full of potholes. We'd better take the freeway.
b. to be covered in
Se había caído una botella y el suelo estaba lleno de cristalesSomeone had dropped a bottle and the floor was covered in glass.
3. (to have a great amount of; used with "de")
a. to be full of
Los jóvenes que crecen en estas circunstancias están llenos de odio hacia la sociedad.Young people who grow up in these circumstances are full of hatred toward society.
4. (to be satiated)
a. to be full
Me irrita la manía de mi madre de hacernos comer cuando ya estamos llenos.I find it quite annoying my mother's obsession with making us eat when we are already full.
b. to be full up
A word or phrase that is commonly used in conversational speech (e.g. skinny, grandma).
(colloquial)
Estoy tan llena que yo creo que esta noche no ceno.I'm so full up. I think I won't be having dinner tonight.
5. (to be heavy)
a. to be plump
Es verdad que Clara está un poco llena, pero ¿viste que no tiene ni una arruga?It's true that Clara is a bit plump, but did you notice that she has no wrinkles at all?
b. to be chubby
La niña es muy delgada, pero el niño está más bien lleno.The girl is very thin, but the boy is rather chubby.
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ser(
sehr
)
A copular verb links the subject of a clause to the predicate (e.g. My brother is tall).
1. (used to talk about characteristics)
a. to be
Sus ojos son azules.Her eyes are blue.
Mi abuelo es profesor.My grandpa is a teacher.
An intransitive verb is one that does not require a direct object (e.g. The man sneezed.).
2. (used to indicate origin)
a. to be
Soy de Nueva York.I'm from New York.
3. (to serve as)
a. to be
El lápiz es para escribir, no para lanzar.Pencils are for writing, not for throwing.
4. (used to talk about prices)
a. to be
¿Cuánto quiere por este cuadro? - Son diez dólares.How much do you want for this picture? - It's ten dollars.
5. (to be composed of)
a. to be made of
El casillero antiguo de mi abuela es de roble.My grandma's antique dresser is made of oak.
6. (used to indicate possession)
a. to be
Este reloj es de mi madre.This watch is my mother's.
7. (to take place)
a. to be
La fiesta será en mi casa.The party will be at my place.
8. (to be associated with; used with "de")
a. to root for
Yo soy del mejor equipo del mundo: FC Barcelona.I root for the best team in the world: FC Barcelona.
An impersonal verb is a verb with no apparent subject (e.g. Llueve en España.).
9. (used to express time)
a. to be
Son las siete de la mañana.It is seven in the morning.
Era de noche cuando llegaron.It was night when they arrived.
An auxiliary verb, or helper verb, is a conjugated verb that comes before a main verb and determines the main verb's tense, mood, or aspect (e.g. I have gone.).
10. (with the passive voice)
a. to be
El edificio fue diseñado por un equipo de arquitectos.The building was built by a team of architects.
A masculine noun is used with masculine articles and adjectives (e.g. el hombre guapo, el sol amarillo).
11. (entity)
a. being
Hay un ser vivo en el lago, pero no sé qué es.There's a living being in the lake, but I don't know what it is.
12. (human)
a. person
Su papá es un ser muy agradable.Her dad is a very nice person.
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