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Quick answer
"Comprueba" is a form of "comprobar", a transitive verb which is often translated as "to check". "Escucha" is a noun which is often translated as "listening". Learn more about the difference between "escucha" and "comprueba" below.
A feminine noun is almost always used with feminine articles and adjectives (e.g. la mujer bonita, la luna llena).
1. (act of listening)
a. listening
La escucha es una destreza importante para trabajar en el servicio de atención al cliente.Listening is an important skill for working in customer service.
2. (espionage)
a. monitoring
El juez emitió una orden para la escucha de la línea telefónica del sospechoso. The judge issued a warrant for monitoring of the suspect's telephone line.
This means that the noun can be masculine or feminine, depending on the gender of person it refers to (e.g. el doctor, la doctora).
3. (military)
a. scout
El escucha regresó e informó al capitán sobre las fortificaciones del enemigo.The scout returned and informed the captain about the enemy's fortifications.
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A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to verify)
a. to check
Vale la pena comprobar de nuevo a qué hora sale el vuelo mañana.It's worth checking again what time the flight leaves tomorrow.
2. (to demonstrate)
a. to prove
Con este estudio queremos comprobar que nuestra teoría es cierta.With this study, we want to prove that our theory is correct.
3. (to notice)
a. to realize
Ya comprobé que sí tiene muy mal carácter.I've realized that he has a very bad temper.
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