Quick answer
"Deber" is a transitive verb which is often translated as "to owe", and "hay que" is a phrase which is often translated as "one must". Learn more about the difference between "deber" and "hay que" below.
deber(
deh
-
behr
)
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to reciprocate)
a. to owe
El dinero que me debe cubriría mis facturas.The money he owes me would cover my bills.
An auxiliary verb, or helper verb, is a conjugated verb that comes before a main verb and determines the main verb's tense, mood, or aspect (e.g. I have gone.).
2. (used to express obligation)
a. must (used with an infinitive)
Debo ser responsable.I must be responsible.
b. have to
Ya sabes que debes ponerte la corbata para ir al colegio.You know you have to wear your tie to go to school.
c. should
Los culpables de delitos viales deben ser sancionados.Traffic offenders should be punished.
d. ought to
Deberías ser más amable con los vecinos.You ought to be more polite with our neighbors.
3. (used to express possibility)
a. must (used with an infinitive)
¿Cuántos años tiene tu profesora de francés? - Debe tener unos cuarenta.How old is your French teacher? - She must be around forty.
A masculine noun is used with masculine articles and adjectives (e.g. el hombre guapo, el sol amarillo).
4. (responsibility)
a. duty
Es mi deber proteger mi país.It's my duty to protect my country.
b. obligation
Es tu deber como madre cuidar a tus hijos.It's your obligation as a mother to take care of your children.
deberes
A plural noun indicates that there is more than one person, place, thing, or idea.
plural noun
5. (education)
a. homework
Tengo un montón de deberes que hacer este fin de semana.I have a ton of homework to do this weekend.
deberse
A pronominal verb always uses a reflexive pronoun. (e.g. Te ves cansado.).
6. (to be the result of; used with "a")
a. to be due to
Esta situación se debe a la falta de información.This situation is due to a lack of information.
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hay que(
ay
 
keh
)
A phrase is a group of words commonly used together (e.g once upon a time).
phrase
1. (general)
a. one must
Hay que ser valiente de cara al mal.One must be brave in the face of evil.
b.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
Hay que llenar la solicitud a mano.The application must be filled out by hand.
Hay que trabajar mucho para ser exitoso.You have to work hard to be successful.
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