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Quick answer
"Esta" is an adjective which is often translated as "this", and "hoy es martes" is a phrase which is often translated as "today is Tuesday". Learn more about the difference between "esta" and "hoy es martes" below.
esta(
ehs
-
tah
)
An adjective is a word that describes a noun (e.g. the big dog).
1. (feminine demonstrative)
a. this
Esta silla está rota. Siéntate mejor en esa.This chair is broken. You'd better sit on that one.
A pronoun is a word that stands in for a noun (e.g. she).
2. (feminine demonstrative)
a. this
Esta es la casa con la que siempre soñé.This is the house I always dreamed of.
b. this one
No me gustó esa novela. En cambio, esta me encantó.I didn't like that novel. On the other hand, I loved this one.
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hoy es martes(
oy
 
ehs
 
mahr
-
tehs
)
A phrase is a group of words commonly used together (e.g once upon a time).
phrase
1. (general)
a. today is Tuesday
¿Qué día es hoy? - Hoy es martes.What day is it today? - Today is Tuesday.
b. it's Tuesday today
Hoy es martes, y sabes que los martes siempre cenamos afuera, así que...¡vamos!It's Tuesday today, and you know that on Tuesdays, we always dine out, so...let's go!
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