A pronoun is a word that stands in for a noun (e.g. she).
1. (in questions)
a. cuál
Which are the classes that interest you this semester?¿Cuáles son las clases que te interesan este semestre?
Which do you prefer? The pasta or the salad?¿Cuál prefieres? ¿La pasta o la ensalada?
2. (in relative clauses)
a. que
The invitation, which was mailed to you, is for our wedding.La invitación, que se te mandó, es para nuestra boda.
b. el cual
The village has a castle, which dates from the 12th century.El pueblo tiene un castillo, el cual data del siglo XII.
c. la cual
The actor's house, which is on top of a hill, has a wonderful view of LA.La casa del actor, la cual está en lo alto de una colina, tiene unas vistas maravillosas de Los Ángeles.
d. lo cual
She didn't support me when I needed her, which made me realize that she wasn't a real friend.No me apoyó cuando la necesité, lo cual me hizo pensar que no era una amiga de verdad.
e. los cuales
There are several books on the subject, which are available in the library.Existen varios libros sobre el tema, los cuales están disponibles en la biblioteca.
f. las cuales
He explained it using some scientific words, which I have forgotten.Lo explicó con unas palabras científicas, las cuales no recuerdo.
An adjective is a word that describes a noun (e.g. the big dog).
3. (in questions)
a. qué
Which type of food do you want to serve at the party?¿Qué tipo de comida quieres servir en la fiesta?
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An adjective is a word that describes a noun (e.g. the big dog).
1. (in questions)
a. qué
which color do you like best?¿qué color te gusta más?
which way do we go?¿hacia dónde vamos?
which one(s)?¿cuál(es)?
2. (in relative constructions)
I was there for a week, during which time…estuve allí una semana, durante la cual…
she came at noon, by which time I had leftllegó a mediodía, para entonces yo ya me había marchado
A pronoun is a word that stands in for a noun (e.g. she).
3. (in questions; singular)
a. cuál
4. (plural)
a. cuáles
which have you chosen?¿cuál has escogido?
which of the two is prettier?¿cuál de las dos es más bonita?
which of them is going?¿cuál de ellos va?
I can never remember which is whichnunca me acuerdo de cuál es cuál
5. (relative; singular)
a. que, el/la cual
6. (plural)
a. que, los/las cuales
the house which is for salela casa que está en venta
the house, which has been empty for yearsla casa, que lleva años vacía
7. (referring back to whole clause)
a. lo cual
he's getting married, which surprises mese va a casar, lo cual or cosa que me sorprende
she was back in London, which annoyed meestaba de vuelta en Londres, lo cual me molestó
8. (with prepositions)
the house of which I am speakingla casa de la que estoy hablando
the countries which we are going tolos países a los que vamos a ir
the town which we live inla ciudad en (la) que vivimos
I was shocked by the anger with which she said thisme sorprendió el enfado, enojo con (el) que dijo esto
after which he went outtras lo cual, salió
Copyright © 2006 Harrap Publishers Limited
which [wɪtʃ]
1 (in direct and indirect questions, reported speech)
[Which]/[which one]/[which ones] in direct and indirect questions and after expressions of (un)certainty and doubt (e.g. [no sé]) usually translate as [cuál]/[cuáles]:
which do you want? (offering one) ¿cuál quieres?; (offering two or more) ¿cuáles quieres?; I can't tell which is which no sé cuál es cuál; which of you did it? ¿cuál de vosotros lo hizo?; which of you is Kathleen? ¿cuál de vosotras es Kathleen?; I don't know which to choose no sé cuál escoger; tell me which you like best dime cuáles te gustan más; I don't mind which no me importa cuál
2 (relative) (replacing noun)
In relative clauses where [which] defines the noun it refers to, you can usually translate it as [que]. Note that in this type of sentence [which] can be substituted by [that] in English:
the letter which came this morning was from my niece la carta que llegó esta mañana era de mi sobrina; it's an illness which causes nerve damage es una enfermedad que daña los nervios; do you remember the house which we saw last week? ¿te acuerdas de la casa que vimos la semana pasada?; the bear which I saw el oso que vi
If [which] is the object of a preposition, you can either translate it as [que] (usually preceded by the definite article) or as article + [cual]/[cuales]. Use the second option particularly in formal language or after long prepositions or prepositional phrases:
your letter, which I received this morning, cheered me up tu carta, que or (formal) la cual he recibido esta mañana, me ha levantado el ánimo; the bull which I'm talking about el toro del que or (formal) del cual estoy hablando; the meeting which we attended la reunión a la que or (formal) a la cual asistimos; the hotel at which we stayed el hotel en el que or (formal) en el cual nos hospedamos; the cities to which we are going las ciudades a las que or (formal) a las cuales vamos
this is the time (which that) they usually come at
he explained the means by which we could achieve our objective explicó los medios a través de los cuales podíamos alcanzar nuestro objetivo
If instead of defining the noun the [which] clause merely adds additional information, you can translate [which] using either [que] or article + [cual]/[cuales]:
the oak dining-table, which was a present from my father, seats 10 people comfortably la mesa de roble, que or la cual fue un regalo de mi padre, admite cómodamente diez comensales
(replacing clause)
When [which] refers to the whole of a preceding sentence or idea, translate as [lo que] or [lo cual]:
it rained hard which upset her llovió mucho, lo que or lo cual le disgustó; they left early, which my wife did not like at all se marcharon pronto, lo cual or lo que no agradó nada a mi mujer
After a preposition only [lo cual] can be used:
after which we went to bed después de lo cual nos acostamos
from which we deduce that ... de lo cual deducimos que ...
1 (in direct and indirect questions, reported speech)
When [which] is used as an interrogative adjective, translate using [qué] + noun when the possibilities are very open or [cuál]/[cuáles de] + article + plural noun when the possibilities are limited:
in questions, with report or knowledge verbs
which house do you live in? ¿en qué casa vives?; which day are they coming? ¿qué día vienen?; I don't know which tie he wants no sé qué corbata quiere; which picture do you prefer? ¿qué cuadro prefieres?; ¿cuál de los cuadros prefieres?; which option do you prefer? ¿cuál de las alternativas prefieres?
could we have cuál de las corbatas or sth of the sort here too? The box says qué when options open and cuál de when closed set of options
which way did she go? ¿por dónde se fue?
which one? ¿cuál?
I don't know which one to choose no sé cuál escoger; tell me which ones you like best dime cuáles te gustan más
2 (relative)
look which way you will ... mires por donde mires ...
by which time the doctor didn't arrive for another 40 minutes, by which time she'd died
he used "peradventure", which word is now archaic dijo "peradventure", palabra que ha quedado ahora anticuada
... she said, which remark annoyed me
in which case en cuyo caso
he didn't get here till 10, by which time Jane had already left no llegó hasta las 10 y para entonces Jane ya se había ido
Collins Complete Spanish Electronic Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers 2011
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