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Spanish Plural Noun Forms

Spanish Plural Noun Forms

Quick Answer

Spanish nouns can be singular or plural, and Spanish plural nouns will almost always end in -s or -es.

Here are the rules (and, of course, exceptions) you need to know to pluralize Spanish nouns.

Nouns that End in a Vowel

Let's first take a look at the rules for words that end in a vowel.

1. Just Add -s

Rule: If a singular noun ends in an unstressed vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or the stressed vowels á, é or ó, add -s to the end of a singular noun to make it plural.

Here are some examples.

SingularPlural
la pera
las peras
la bota
las botas
el sonido
los sonidos
el panti
los pantis
el café
los cafés
el papá
los papás
el buró
los burós

There are a few exceptions to the above rule. Here are some you're likely to come across:

  • The plural of no (no) is noes.
  • The plural of yo (I) can be yoes or yos.

2. Add -s or -es

Rule: If a singular noun ends in í or ú, you can add -s or -es to pluralize the word. The -es plural form is considered to be a bit fancier.

Here are some examples.

Singular-s Plural-es Plural
tisú
tisús
tisúes
tabú
tabús
tabúes
israelí
israelís
israelíes
marroquí
marroquís
marroquíes

There are a few exceptions to the above rule. Here are some you're likely to come across:

  • The plural of (yes) is always es.
  • The plurals of loanwords (words that have come into Spanish from other languages) that end in í or ú are formed by simply adding an -s to the end of the word. For example: popurrís (potpourris), menús (menus)

Nouns that End in a Consonant

Now that you've got the rules for words ending in a vowel down, let's learn about words that end in a consonant.

1. Add -es

Rule: If a singular noun ends in a vowel plus y or the consonants l, r, n, d, z, j, s, x, or ch, add -es.

Here are some examples.

SingularPlural
el rey
los reyes
el panel
los paneles
el color
los colores
el botón
los botones
el césped
los céspedes
la luz
las luces
el reloj
los relojes
el mes
los meses
el reloj
los relojes
el fax
los faxes
el sándwich
los sándwiches
  • If a singular noun ends in z, you must change the z to a c before adding -es.

2. Add -s

Rule: If a singular noun ends in a consonant cluster (more than one consonant together) or a vowel plus a consonant other than l, r, n, d, z, j, s, x, or ch, add -s.

Here are some examples.

SingularPlural
el iceberg
los icebergs
el esnob
los esnobs
el zigzag
los zigzags
el crac
los cracs
el mamut
los mamuts

There are a few exceptions to the above rule. Here are some you're likely to come across:

  • The plural of club (club) is clubes.
  • The plural of álbum (album) is álbumes.
  • The singular and plural forms of words ending in -st or -zt are the same. Examples: el test, los test

Exceptional Exceptions

Ready for more exceptions? Here they come! Keep in mind that many of the words below are specialized or technical words, so you won't come across them too often!

Rule: If a singular noun ends in s or x, has more than one syllable, and the last syllable is unstressed, the singular and plural forms are the same.

Here are some examples.

SingularPlural
el análisis
los análisis
el jueves
los jueves
el tórax
los tórax

Rule: If the second word in a singular compound noun is a plural noun, the singular and plural forms are the same.

Here are some examples.

SingularPlural
el ciempiés
los ciempiés
el pasapuré
los pasapuré

If a singular noun ends in l, r, n, d, z, j and is a palabra esdrújula (a word with three more syllables that is accented on the third-to-last syllable), the singular and plural forms are the same.

Here is an example.

SingularPlural
el polisíndeton
polisíndeton

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