Quick answer
"Wither" is an intransitive verb which is often translated as "marchitarse", and "shrivel" is a transitive verb which is often translated as "marchitar". Learn more about the difference between "wither" and "shrivel" below.
wither
An intransitive verb is one that does not require a direct object (e.g. The man sneezed.).
1. (to shrivel)
a. marchitarse
The drought and the excessive heat caused all the flowers in the garden to wither.La sequía y el calor excesivo hicieron que las flores del jardín se marchitaran.
2. (to atrophy)
a. atrofiarse
My muscles withered because my arm was in a cast for two weeks. Now I need physical therapy.Los músculos se me atrofiaron porque tuve yeso durante dos semanas. Ahora necesito fisioterapia.
b. debilitarse
My brother's pneumonia seemed to make him wither and get sicker.La neumonía de mi hermano pareció lo hizo debilitarse y enfermarse aún más.
3. (to vanish)
a. desvanecerse
All my hopes of winning the scholarship withered when I found out Diego got higher grades than I did.Todas mis esperanzas de ganar la beca se devanecieron cuando me enteré de que Diego tuvo mejores calificaciones que yo.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
4. (to cause to shrivel)
a. marchitar
The weed killer withered the dandelions that were taking over the garden.El herbicida marchitó los dientes de león que invadían el jardín.
5. (to cause to atrophy)
a. atrofiar
Lack of use from being in a hospital bed withered my leg muscles.La falta de uso por estar en una cama de hospital me atrofió los músculos de las piernas.
6. (to affect adversely)
a. debilitar
News of the politician's involvement with bribery withered his crediibility.Las noticias de la participación del político en el soborno debilitaron su credibilidad.
7. (to abash)
a. fulminar
A phrase used as a figure of speech or a word that is symbolic in meaning; metaphorical (e.g. carrot, bean).
(figurative)
When my brother spoke out of turn, our mother withered him with a look and he shut up instantly.Cuando mi hermano habló fuera de tono, nuestra madre lo fulminó con una mirada y él se calló al instante.
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shrivel
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to cause to wither)
a. marchitar
The fierce sun withered the crops before they could develop.El sol intenso marchitó los cultivos antes de que pudieran desarrollarse.
b. secar
Botrytis withers the grapes, leaving them sweeter.La botritis seca la uva, dejándola más dulce.
2. (to form wrinkles in)
a. arrugar
Age had withered the beautiful face I remembered.El paso de los años había arrugado la cara tan bella que guardaba en el recuerdo.
An intransitive verb is one that does not require a direct object (e.g. The man sneezed.).
3. (to wither)
a. marchitarse
All my beautiful plants had withered and died from lack of water.Todas mi bellas plantas se habían marchitado y habían muerto por falta de agua.
b. secarse
Direct sunlight will cause the leaves to wither.La luz directa del sol hará que se sequen las hojas.
4. (to wrinkle)
a. arrugarse
The skin of the peppers will blister and wither under the broiler.La piel de los pimentones se ampollará y se arrugará en el grill.
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