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Quick answer
"Go on" is an intransitive verb phrase which is often translated as "seguir", and "keep on" is a transitive verb phrase which is often translated as "dejar prendido". Learn more about the difference between "go on" and "keep on" below.
go on(
go
 
an
)
An intransitive verb phrase is a phrase that combines a verb with a preposition or other particle and does not require a direct object (e.g. Everybody please stand up.).
intransitive verb phrase
1. (to continue)
a. seguir
I don't know how much longer I can go on if I don't get some water soon.No sé cuánto puedo seguir si no consigo agua pronto.
b. continuar
I'm getting tired, but I have to go on and reach the camp before sundown.Me estoy cansando, pero tengo que continuar y llegar al campamento antes del atardecer.
c. durar
Her depression went on for about a year after her miscarriage.Su depresión duró alrededor de un año después de que perdió el embarazo.
2. (to keep on; used with gerund)
a. seguir
Before you go on making jokes about her artwork, I think you should know that it sold for $10,000.Antes de que sigas haciendo chistes sobre su obra, creo que deberías saber que se vendió por $10,000.
3. (to proceed; used with "to")
a. pasar
We are going to go on to the next chapter now.Vamos a pasar al siguiente capítulo ahora.
4. (to be guided by)
a. basarse en
We don't have much to go on, but I think we have enough for an indictment.No tenemos mucho en que basarnos, pero creo que tenemos lo suficiente para formular cargos.
b. guiarse
The only thing the police had to go on was a blurry picture of the kidnapper.Lo único que tenía la policía para guiarse era una foto borrosa del secuestrador.
5. (to approach)
a. tener cerca de
How old is Natalia? - I think she's going on 45.¿Cuántos años tiene Natalia? - Creo que tiene cerca de 45.
b. ser cerca de
It's going on 4 pm and we still don't know if we'll be able to get on the plane.Son cerca de las 4 pm y todavía no sabemos si vamos a poder subirnos al avión.
6. (to fit)
a. entrarle
The baby's feet have grown. These shoes won't go on him any more.Los pies del bebé han crecido. Ya no le entran estos zapatos.
b. colocar
This lid is not the right size. It doesn't go on this jar.Esta tapa no es del tamaño adecuado. No se puede colocar en este frasco.
7. (to happen)
a. pasar
I don't know what's going on over there, but it looks like a fight.No sé qué pasa ahí, pero parece ser una pelea.
b. ocurrir
What's going on here? - Nothing Dad, we're just doing an experiment for science class.¿Qué ocurre? - Nada, papá, sólo estamos haciendo un experimento para la clase de ciencias.
8. (to talk a lot; used with "about")
a. hablar
Sandra is still going on about how she won the contest in school last week.Sandra sigue hablando de cómo ganó el concurso en la escuela la semana pasada.
b. hablar sin parar
I hate people who go on about themselves for hours on end.Detesto a las personas que hablan sin parar de sí mismas durante horas y horas.
9. (theater)
a. salir a escena
Tracy's band goes on at 8 pm.La banda de Tracy sale a escena a las 8 pm.
10. (to switch on)
a. prenderse
Regionalism used in Latin America: all the countries in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Does not include Spain.
(Latin America)
The lights went on in the theater when the movie ended.Se prendieron las luces en el cine cuando terminó la película.
b. encenderse
The lights on the bridge go on when it gets dark.Las luces en el puente se encienden cuando oscurece.
11. (to embark)
a. ir
We're going to go on a trip this weekend.Nos vamos a ir de viaje este fin de semana.
An interjection is a short utterance that expresses emotion, hesitation, or protest (e.g. Wow!).
12. (encouraging)
a. anda
Go on! Ask her for her phone number.¡Anda! Pídele su número de teléfono.
b. venga
Go on! You can do it.¡Venga! Tú puedes.
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keep on(
kip
 
an
)
A transitive verb phrase is a phrase that combines a verb with a preposition or other particle and requires a direct object (e.g. Take out the trash.).
transitive verb phrase
1. (to not turn off)
a. dejar prendido
Regionalism used in Latin America: all the countries in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Does not include Spain.
(Latin America)
We'll be asleep by the time you get home, but we'll keep a light on for you.Estaremos dormidos cuando llegues a casa, pero te dejaremos una luz prendida.
b. dejar encendido
It drives me nuts that my family keeps the TV on all day.Me vuelve loco que mi familia deja la tele encendida todo el día.
2. (clothing)
a. dejarse puesto
"You can keep your socks and underpants on," said the doctor."Puede dejarse puestos los calcetines y los calzoncillos", dijo el doctor.
b. no quitarse
You should keep your jacket on; we're going right back out again.No deberías quitarte la chaqueta; ahorita vamos a volver a salir.
3. (to not fire)
a. seguir empleando
They decided not to keep Albert on after his violation of the confidentiality agreement.Decidieron no seguir empleando a Albert después de la violación al acuerdo de confidencialidad.
4. (to do something continuously)
a. seguir
Lourdes didn't take the hint, so she just kept on talking for another 45 minutes.Lourdes no entendió la indirecta, así que siguió hablando durante otros 45 minutos.
b. continuar
If it keeps on raining, the levee might break.Si continua lloviendo, el dique podría romperse.
5. (to do many times)
a. no dejar de
Vicky is getting annoyed that Diego keeps on asking her out every time he sees her.Vicky se está fastidiando de que Diego no deja de invitarla a salir cada vez que la ve.
An intransitive verb phrase is a phrase that combines a verb with a preposition or other particle and does not require a direct object (e.g. Everybody please stand up.).
intransitive verb phrase
6. (to talk a lot)
a. no parar de hablar
Lorena kept on about her many accomplishments as if we didn't already know.Lorena no paraba de hablar de sus muchos logros como si no lo supiéramos ya.
b. no hacer más que hablar
Alicia gets a bit annoying when her friend keeps on about how wonderful her son is.Alicia se vuelve un poco fastidiosa cuando su amiga no hace más que hablar de lo maravilloso que es su hijo.
7. (to insist)
a. insistir sobre
My boss is always keeping on about our deadlines.Mi jefe siempre está insistiendo sobre nuestros plazos.
8. (to nag)
a. seguir machacando
My parents kept on about me going to law school until I gave in.Mis padres me siguieron machacando para que ingresara a la facultad de derecho hasta que cedí.
b. dar lata
Why do you have to keep on at me about my grades, Mom? I'm working as hard as I can.¿Por qué tienes que darme lata sobre mis calificaciones, mamá? Estoy haciendo lo mejor que puedo.
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