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Quick answer
"Graves" is a form of "gravar", a transitive verb which is often translated as "to tax". "Esdrújula" is an adjective which is often translated as "stressed on the third-to-last syllable". Learn more about the difference between "esdrújula" and "graves" below.
esdrújula(
ehs
-
droo
-
hoo
-
lah
)
An adjective is a word that describes a noun (e.g. the big dog).
1. (phonetics)
a. stressed on the third-to-last syllable
La palabra "régimen" es una palabra esdrújula.The word "régimen" is another word stressed on the third-to-last syllable.
b. with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable
A word or phrase used to refer to the second person formal “usted” by their conjugation or implied context (e.g. usted).
(formal)
"Ábaco" y "sábado" son palabras esdrújulas."Ábaco" and "sábado" are words with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable.
c. proparoxytone
A word or phrase that is only used by experts, professionals, or academics in a particular field (e.g. exposition).
(technical)
La palabra "círculo" en español es esdrújula.The Spanish word "círculo" is proparoxytone.
A feminine noun is almost always used with feminine articles and adjectives (e.g. la mujer bonita, la luna llena).
2. (phonetics)
a. word stressed on the third-to-last syllable
¿Sabías que la palabra "esdrújula" quiere decir y es una esdrújula?Did you know that the word "esdrújula" both means and is a word stressed on the third-to-last syllable?
En español, las esdrújulas llevan acento escrito.In Spanish, words stressed on the third-to-last syllable are written with an accent.
b. word with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable
A word or phrase used to refer to the second person formal “usted” by their conjugation or implied context (e.g. usted).
(formal)
Me equivoqué al escribir una esdrújula.I made a mistake when writing a word with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable.
c. proparoxytone
A word or phrase that is only used by experts, professionals, or academics in a particular field (e.g. exposition).
(technical)
Las esdrújulas en español siempre se escriben con tilde.Proparoxytones in Spanish are always written with an accent.
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gravar(
grah
-
bahr
)
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to impose a tax on)
a. to tax
El país grava las importaciones de los Estados miembros.The country taxes imports from Member States.
b. to levy a tax on
Gravar las bebidas alcohólicas para recaudar más dinero no tiene muchos apoyos.Levying a tax on alcoholic drinks to increase receipts is not widely supported.
c. to mortgage (real estate)
El gobierno está estudiando a gravar las viviendas vacías.The government is considering mortgaging empty homes.
2. (to overload)
a. to burden
El mantenimiento de un coche grava mucho los gastos mensuales de una familia.The maintenance of a car burdens much of the monthly expenses of a family.
gravarse
A pronominal verb always uses a reflexive pronoun. (e.g. Te ves cansado.).
3. (to worsen)
Regionalism used in Nicaragua
(Nicaragua)
a. to get worse
El estado del paciente se gravó pese a estar en cuidados intensivos.The patient's state got worse despite being in intensive care.
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