Quick answer
"Doler" is an intransitive verb which is often translated as "to hurt", and "lastimar" is a transitive verb which is also often translated as "to hurt". Learn more about the difference between "doler" and "lastimar" below.
An intransitive verb is one that does not require a direct object (e.g. The man sneezed.).
1. (to feel pain)
a. to hurt
Después del accidente, me duele al respirar.After the accident, it hurts when I breathe.
b. to ache
Me ha dolido la espalda la mañana entera.My back has been aching all morning long.
2. (to feel offended)
a. to hurt
Tu indiferencia me duele.Your indifference hurts me.
A pronominal verb always uses a reflexive pronoun. (e.g. Te ves cansado.).
3. (to feel remorse; often used with "de")
a. to regret
Se duele de sus acciones rencorosas.He regrets his spiteful actions.
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A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (physically)
a. to hurt
Le lastimé el tobillo jugando al fútbol.I hurt his ankle playing football.
2. (emotionally)
a. to hurt
Lo lastimó cuando le confesó que estaba saliendo con otra persona.She hurt him when she confessed she was dating another person.
3. (morally)
a. to hurt
Esas revelaciones lastimarían su imagen.Such revelations would hurt their image.
A reflexive verb is a verb that indicates that the subject performs an action on itself (e.g. Miguel se lava.).
4. (to injure oneself)
a. to hurt oneself
Deja de jugar con ese cuchillo. Vas a lastimarte.Stop playing with that knife. You are going to hurt yourself.
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