Quick answer
"Disciplinas" is a form of "disciplinar", a transitive verb which is often translated as "to discipline". "Asignatura" is a noun which is often translated as "subject". Learn more about the difference between "disciplinas" and "asignatura" below.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to train)
a. to discipline
La escuela se toma la tarea de disciplinar a los alumnos muy en serio.The school takes the task of disciplining students very seriously.
b. to drill (repetitive)
El entrenador disciplinó a los jugadores pidiéndoles que repitieran la misma jugada una vez tras otra.The coach drilled the players, asking them to repeat the same play over and over again.
2. (to flog)
a. to whip
Ya no está bien visto que un padre discipline a su hijo como castigo.A father whipping his child as a way of punishing him is no longer considered acceptable.
b. to scourge
A word or phrase that is no longer used in contemporary language and is recognized as being from another era (e.g. thou).
Los guardias disciplinaron al preso por tratar de escaparse.The guards scourged the prisoner for trying to escape.
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A feminine noun is almost always used with feminine articles and adjectives (e.g. la mujer bonita, la luna llena).
1. (education)
a. subject
La historia era mi asignatura favorita en el colegio.History was my favorite subject in school.
b. course
La asignatura de química la imparte el Señor González.The chemistry course is taught by Mr. González.
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