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Quick answer
"Descartar" is a transitive verb which is often translated as "to rule out", and "descartable" is an adjective which is often translated as "dispensable". Learn more about the difference between "descartar" and "descartable" below.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to discard)
a. to rule out
Quedó bien claro que tendríamos que descartar la opción de ir a la playa por la lluvia.It became quite clear that we would have to rule out the option of going to the beach because of the rain.
b. to dismiss
Si examinamos el análisis de las pruebas, podemos descartar nuestra primera hipótesis.If we examine the analysis of the tests, we can dismiss our initial hypothesis.
c. to reject
Al final, fue descartado como candidato para la presidencia.In the end, he was rejected as a candidate for the presidency.
d. to discount
Hemos descartado la posibilidad de mudarnos este año porque no tenemos dinero.We've discounted the possibility of moving this year because we don't have the money.
A pronominal verb always uses a reflexive pronoun. (e.g. Te ves cansado.).
2. (cards)
a. to discard
Te toca a ti, ¿no? - ¡Qué va! Aún no te has descartado.It's your turn right? - What are you talking about? You haven't discarded yet.
b. to throw away
Siempre me descarto de las cartas en los momentos más inoportunos.I always throw away cards at the most inopportune times.
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An adjective is a word that describes a noun (e.g. the big dog).
1. (unnecessary)
a. dispensable
La jefa de Recursos Humanos consideraba que los candidatos sin titulación eran descartables.The Human Resources manager considered the unqualified candidates as dispensable.
2. (unlikely)
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
No es descartable un adelanto electoral si el Parlamento no aprueba los presupuestos para el próximo ejercicio.An early election cannot be ruled out if next year's budget is not passed by Parliament.
La posibilidad de que el tumor sea maligno no es descartable.We cannot dismiss the possibility of a malignant tumor.
3. (that can be thrown away)
Regionalism used in Latin America: all the countries in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Does not include Spain.
(Latin America)
a. disposable
Un buen tatuador solo utiliza agujas descartables.A good tattoo artist only uses disposable needles.
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