Quick answer
"Demasiado" is an adverb which is often translated as "too", and "sobrar" is an intransitive verb which is often translated as "to be left over". Learn more about the difference between "demasiado" and "sobrar" below.
An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or other adverbs (e.g. to run quickly, very tired).
1. (in excess)
a. too
No me juzgues demasiado rápido.Don't judge me too quickly.
b. too much
Si corro demasiado, me duelen las rodillas.If I run too much, my knees hurt.
An adjective is a word that describes a noun (e.g. the big dog).
2. (in excess)
a. too much (uncountable)
Fue demasiada comida para mí.It was too much food for me.
b. too many (countable)
Son demasiadas tareas para una persona.There are too many tasks for one person.
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An intransitive verb is one that does not require a direct object (e.g. The man sneezed.).
1. (to remain)
a. to be left over
Si sobra comida después de la fiesta, la vamos a donar.If food is left over after the party, we'll donate it.
2. (to exceed requirements)
a. to not be needed
Usted nos sobra en esta reunión, así que se puede retirar.You are not needed at this meeting, so you can leave.
b. to be too many (with countable nouns)
Sobran platos en la mesa. - Está bien; quita uno.There are too many plates on the table. - Ok; take one off.
c. to be too much (with uncountable nouns)
Sobra comida chatarra en este carrito; mejor compramos más verduras.There is too much junk food in this cart; let's buy more vegetables instead.
d. to be more than enough
Sobra agua en la olla para cocinar el arroz.There's more than enough water in the pot to cook the rice.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
3. (to look down on)
Regionalism used in Argentina
Regionalism used in Uruguay
a. to patronize
Me molesta mucho que me sobren.It really bothers me when people patronize me.
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