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Quick answer
"Declinar" is a transitive verb which is often translated as "to decline", and "obviar" is a transitive verb which is often translated as "to avoid". Learn more about the difference between "declinar" and "obviar" below.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to fail to accept)
a. to decline
Tengo que declinar tu invitación porque me voy a encontrar en el exterior.I must decline your invitation because I'm going abroad.
b. to reject
El consejo declinó la petición por unanimidad.The board rejected the petition unanimously.
c. to turn down
El salario no era bueno, así que decliné la oferta de trabajo.The salary wasn't high, so I turned down the job proposal.
d. to not accept
El gobierno declinó la solicitud de mi amigo para una visa.The government didn't accept my friend's application for a visa.
2. (linguistics)
a. to decline
Declina los pronombres personales en los casos acusativo y dativo.Decline the personal pronouns in the accusative and dative cases.
An intransitive verb is one that does not require a direct object (e.g. The man sneezed.).
3. (to end)
a. to draw to a close
Los búhos aparecen cuando declina el día.Owls appear when the day draws to a close.
4. (to decrease)
a. to decline
El anciano se enfermó de neumonía y su salud comenzó a declinar.The old man got pneumonia, and his health began to decline.
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A transitive verb is a verb that requires a direct object (e.g. I bought a book.).
1. (to evade)
a. to avoid
Esta nueva técnica nos permitirá obviar muchos de los problemas que planteaba la anterior.This new technique will allow us to avoid many of the problems posed by the previous one.
b. to obviate
A word or phrase used to refer to the second person formal “usted” by their conjugation or implied context (e.g. usted).
El artículo obvia los riesgos que supone el uso indiscriminado del medicamento.The article obviates the risks incurred by an indiscriminate use of the drug.
c. to get round
De momento, mejor obviar el tema de la financiación.For the time being, it'll be best if we get round the funding issue.
2. (to omit)
a. to leave out
Voy a obviar las cifras, ya que los que estén interesados pueden acceder a ellas en la página web.I'll leave out the figures, since those interested can access them in the webpage.
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