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A suffix is an affix that is added to the end of a word to create a new word with a different meaning (e.g. philia, ism).
1. (not having; used with nouns to form adjectives)
a. sin
John offered his coat to a coatless man he met begging in the street.John ofreció su abrigo a un hombre sin abrigo que encontró pidiendo limosna en la calle.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
Peter is clueless about how to fix a leaky faucet.Peter no tiene ni idea de cómo reparar una canilla que pierde.
The couple was childless for the first three years of their marriage.La pareja no tuvo hijos durante los primeros tres años de su matrimonio.
2. (beyond the range of; used with action nouns to form adjectives)
a. in-
We've tried countless combinations, and nothing has worked.Hemos probabo combinaciones incontables, y nada ha funcionado.
3. (that does not perform or is performed; used with verbs to form adjectives)
a. in-
Nina was given an award for her tireless efforts to help the neighborhood's children.Se le dio a Nina un premio por sus esfuerzos incansables para ayudar a los niños del barrio.
b. im-
Karl was dauntless facing the oncoming attack.Karl estaba impávido frente al ataque que se aproximaba.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
This shirt is made of wrinkless fabric.Esta camisa está hecha con tela que no se arruga.
Use fadeless paper for the background.Utiliza papel que no se destiña para el fondo.
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...less [lɪs]
coatless sin abrigo; hatless sin sombrero
"Menos ... que" or "menos ... de"?
Use menos with que before nouns and pronouns (provided they are not followed by clauses) as well as before adverbs and prepositions:
He has less money than his sister Tiene menos dinero que su hermana
He sells less/fewer than I do or than me Vende menos que yo
These days I'm much less shy than before Hoy en día soy mucho menos tímido que antes
Use menos ... de lo que/del que/de la que/de los que/de las que with following clauses:
He earns less than I thought Gana menos de lo que yo creía
They have 16 seats — five fewer than they had before these elections Tienen 16 escaños — cinco menos de los que tenían antes de estas elecciones
It provides the body with fewer calories than it needs Proporciona al organismo menos calorías de las que necesita
Use menos with de before lo + adjective/past participle:
The price of wheat went up less than expected El precio del trigo subió menos de lo previsto
Use menos with de in comparisons involving numbers or quantity:
... in less than eight seconds ... ... en menos de ocho segundos ...
You won't get it for less than 4,000 euros No lo conseguirás por menos de 4.000 euros
But use que instead in emphatic expressions like nada menos que and ni más ni menos que even when followed by numbers:
They offered him no less than 100,000 euros a year! ¡Le ofrecieron nada menos que or ni más ni menos que 100.000 euros al año
A lot less, far fewer
When translating a lot less, far fewer etc remember to make the mucho in mucho menos agree with any noun it describes or refers to:
These bulbs use a lot less electricity than conventional ones Estas bombillas gastan mucha menos electricidad que las normales
They have had far fewer opportunities than wealthy people Han gozado de muchas menos oportunidades que la gente rica
Collins Complete Spanish Electronic Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers 2011
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