Quick answer
"Fall out" is an intransitive verb phrase which is often translated as "caerse", and "fall down" is an intransitive verb phrase which is also often translated as "caerse". Learn more about the difference between "fall out" and "fall down" below.
fall out
An intransitive verb phrase is a phrase that combines a verb with a preposition or other particle and does not require a direct object (e.g. Everybody please stand up.).
intransitive verb phrase
1. (to come out)
a. caerse
My son makes me so nervous that I think my hair's going to fall out.Mi hijo me pone tan nerviosa que creo que se me va caer pelo.
2. (to quarrel)
a. pelearse
My brother and I weren't on speaking terms since we had fallen out a month before.Mi hermano y yo no nos hablábamos desde que nos habíamos peleando un mes antes.
b. reñir
My parents would fall out from time to time, but they always found a way to make up.Mis padres reñían de vez en cuando, pero siempre encontraban la manera de reconciliarse.
3. (military)
a. romper filas
The sergeant ordered the soldiers to fall out.El sargento ordenó a los soldados que rompieran filas.
4. (to turn out)
a. resultar
It fell out that that the mayoral candidate had embezzled city funds.Resultó que el candidato a la alcaldía había malversado fondos de la ciudad.
b. salir
Depending on how everything falls out, we may still have time for a trip to the zoo.Dependiendo de como salgan las cosas, tal vez todavía tendremos tiempo para una excursión al zoológico.
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fall down(
fal
 
daun
)
An intransitive verb phrase is a phrase that combines a verb with a preposition or other particle and does not require a direct object (e.g. Everybody please stand up.).
intransitive verb phrase
1. (to descend)
a. caerse
He got too close to the edge and fell down the cliff.Se acercó demasiado al borde y se cayó por el acantilado.
2. (to collapse)
a. derrumbarse
After three hundred years, the wall finally fell down.Después de trescientos años, el muro finalmente se derrumbó.
3. (to fail)
a. fracasar
They fell down on the job, and now we are all suffering the consequences.Fracasaron en el trabajo, y ahora todos estamos sufriendo las consecuencias.
b. fallar
The plan started off strong, but fell down in several key areas.El plan comenzó muy bien, pero falló en varias áreas clave.
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