"De menos" is a phrase which is often translated as "too little", and "en exceso" is a phrase which is often translated as "in excess". Learn more about the difference between "de menos" and "en exceso" below.
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A phrase is a group of words commonly used together (e.g once upon a time).
a. too little
La cajera se equivocó y me dio cinco dólares de menos.The cashier made a mistake and gave me five dollars too little.
b. too few
Somos 15, así que hay cuatro sillas de menos.We are 15, so there are four chairs too few.
Hay 20 niños en la clase y yo solo tengo 15 fotocopias; o sea, cinco de menos.There are 20 children in the class and I have only 15 photocopies; that is, I'm five short.
This refers to an idiomatic word or phrase for which there is no word-for-word translation.
no direct translation
El gobierno ha pagado €200 de menos a los funcionarios que hicieron huelga.The government has underpaid the civil servants who went on strike by €200.
Me cobraron de menos, y tuve que volver a la tienda a decírselo.They undercharged me, and I had to go back to the store and tell them.