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Quick answer
"By then" is an adverb which is often translated as "para entonces", and "by now" is a phrase which is often translated as "ya". Learn more about the difference between "by then" and "by now" below.
by then(
An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or other adverbs (e.g. to run quickly, very tired).
1. (sometime before another point in time)
a. para entonces
Were you at the library last night? - No. By then we had finished the science project and went home.¿Estabas en la biblioteca anoche? - No. Para entonces habíamos terminado el trabajo de ciencias y volvimos a casa.
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by now(
A phrase is a group of words commonly used together (e.g once upon a time).
1. (general)
a. ya
He should be here by now.Ya debería estar aquí.
b. a estas alturas
You should have graduated by now.A estas alturas, deberías haberte recibido.
c. a estas horas
He probably knows by now that he can't fire judges he disagrees with.Probablemente sabe a estas horas que no puede despedir a los jueces con los que no está de acuerdo.
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