"By now" is a phrase which is often translated as "ya", and "right now" is a phrase which is often translated as "ahora mismo". Learn more about the difference between "by now" and "right now" below.
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A phrase is a group of words commonly used together (e.g once upon a time).
He should be here by now.Ya debería estar aquí.
b. a estas alturas
You should have graduated by now.A estas alturas, deberías haberte recibido.
c. a estas horas
He probably knows by now that he can't fire judges he disagrees with.Probablemente sabe a estas horas que no puede despedir a los jueces con los que no está de acuerdo.