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Quick answer
"By now" is a phrase which is often translated as "ya", and "by then" is an adverb which is often translated as "para entonces". Learn more about the difference between "by now" and "by then" below.
by now(
A phrase is a group of words commonly used together (e.g once upon a time).
1. (general)
a. ya
He should be here by now.Ya debería estar aquí.
b. a estas alturas
You should have graduated by now.A estas alturas, deberías haberte recibido.
c. a estas horas
He probably knows by now that he can't fire judges he disagrees with.Probablemente sabe a estas horas que no puede despedir a los jueces con los que no está de acuerdo.
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by then(
An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or other adverbs (e.g. to run quickly, very tired).
1. (sometime before another point in time)
a. para entonces
Were you at the library last night? - No. By then we had finished the science project and went home.¿Estabas en la biblioteca anoche? - No. Para entonces habíamos terminado el trabajo de ciencias y volvimos a casa.
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