word order in English
I am looking for some information about the word order in a sentence in English. But I don't like the information found on the Internet. I would like to know some information or if you know some links. Thank you.
Adjective order is not absolutely fixed but the general sequence is:
- Determiner - are words such as a, an , the, this, that.
- Opinion - ugly wonderful
- Size - big small huge
- Age - old new ancient
- Shape - round square flat
- Colour - red green
- Origin - Bolivia England
- Material - leather wool stone metal and then the Noun we are describing
I've never seen anything except for general remarks contrasting how Spanish syntax is much more flexible than English syntax.
In English most of our declarative sentences are SVO or subject, verb, object (complement). (active voice)
John hit the ball.
Most interrogative questions are reversed, OVS.
What did John hit? (which can awkwardly be stated as John did hit what. If we wished to changed it back to a declaration. (SVO).
OVS is also used for passive voice.
The ball was hit by John.
Spanish, however, uses SVO, VSO,OVS, and with it's redundant object pronouns, also, SOV for declarative statements. Using the passive "se" it can even use the SVO order for stating things passively.
Juan envió la carta. (SVO)
Envió Juan la carta. ( VSO)
Lo envío Juan. (OVS)
La carta fue enviado por Juan. (passive) OVS
Se habla español aquí. (Spanish is spoken here, passive) OVS. or (one speaks Spanish, impersonal.) (SVO)
You can figure out the arrangement with the duplicative object pronouns. Suffice it to say that it's not the normal English pattern.
Maria lo pegó a Juan. (it's SOV or SVO depending on whether you consider the lo or Juan to be the object.)
Technically I think lo is the object and Juan is a clarifier, but a non-natives would probably say Juan is the object and the lo is just a duplication, but I think that's a language viewpoint difference)
Needless to say, Spanish is more flexible in it's syntax than English.
I think the "rules" presented there are only generalizations.
I bought it quickly is probably the best way to state it, but I quickly bought it wouldn't even raise an eyebrow.
The same with She carefully lit her cigarette. She lit her cigarette carefully would not raise any objections.
Phone the police immediately...
Immediately phone the police... (preferable) No difference to my ear.
There are many situations where the placement of the adverb might change the emphasis or meaning of the sentence, but, in general, we throw in adverbs wherever.
The only practical "rule" that I have seen is that you place it as close to the word that it modifies as is possible to avoid any doubt about which word it is modifying..
Aha! I have just found something what I was looking for.
This is the link: http://www.mansioningles.com/gram31.htm
And this is the part of the information which I am most interested in.
Adverbios con objeto directos
Los adverbios no suelen colocarse entre el verbo y el objeto directo. El adverbio se coloca detrás del objeto directo o delante del verbo.
I bought it quickly.
Lo compré rápidamente.
She carefully lit her cigarette.
Ella encendió su cigarrillo cuidadosamente/con cuidado.
Pero, cuando el objeto directo es muy largo, se pone el adverbio delante.
Phone the police immediately and tell them everything you saw outside the bank.
Llama a la policía inmediatamente y diles todo lo que viste fuera del banco.
If you think, you can contribute with your ideas or explanations about this matter, I would like to know them.
Generally, adverbs come after the verbs they modify
Well, the position of adverbs (manner, time, place, ...)
Is there anything specific that you would like to know?