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by

por

preposition

by
[baɪ]
preposición
1. por (expressing agent)
  • he was arrested by the police -> fue detenido por la policía
  • made by hand -> hecho(a) a mano
  • a play by Shakespeare -> una obra de Shakespeare
2. junto a (close to)
  • by the fire -> junto al fuego
  • by the side of the road -> al borde de la carretera
3. por (via)
  • to go by the same route -> ir por la misma ruta
  • by land/sea -> por tierra/mar
4. (with manner, means)
  • by rail -> en tren
  • by car/plane -> en coche/avión
  • to pay by credit card -> pagar con tarjeta de crédito
  • he had two children by his first wife -> tuvo dos hijos de su primera esposa
  • to take somebody by the hand/arm -> tomar or coger a alguien de la mano/del brazo (español de España)
  • to know somebody by sight -> conocer a alguien de vista
  • to earn one's living by teaching -> ganarse la vida enseñando
  • to go by appearances -> fiarse de las apariencias
  • to call somebody by their first name -> llamar a alguien por su nombre (de pila)
  • what do you mean by that? -> ¿qué quieres decir con eso?
5. (past)
  • he walked right by me without stopping -> pasó por mi lado sin detenerse
  • we drove by the school on the way here -> pasamos delante del colegio camino de aquí
6. (at or before)
  • he should be here by now -> debería estar ya aquí
  • by then it was too late -> para entonces ya era demasiado tarde
  • by tomorrow -> para mañana
  • by 1980 they were all dead -> en 1980 ya estaban todos muertos
7. (during)
  • by day -> de día
  • by night -> de noche, por la noche
8. (with measurements, quantities, numbers)
  • to divide by three -> dividir entre tres
  • to multiply by three -> multiplicar por tres
  • to sell something by weight -> vender algo al peso
  • three meters by two -> tres por dos metros, tres metros por dos
  • one by one -> uno(a) a uno(a)
  • to increase by 50 percent -> aumentar en un 50 por ciento
9. see myself, himself, yourself etc
10. (as a result of)
  • by chance/mistake -> por casualidad/error
adverbio
también:
  • by and by -> poco a poco; (gradually) dentro de poco (soon)
  • by and large -> en general, por lo general
  • by the way,… -> a propósito,…
11. (past)
  • to pass by -> pasar; (person) transcurrir, pasar (time)
  • to drive by -> pasar sin detenerse (en coche)

by [bai]
preposición
1. Por, preposición que significa el agente, el instrumento, la causa, el modo y el medio por el cual se ejecuta alguna cosa (via, through).
  • I came in by the back door -> entré por la puerta de atrás
  • By land/sea/air -> por tierra/mar/avión
  • She was brought up by her grandmother -> la crió su abuela, fue criada por su abuela
  • She was accompanied by her father -> iba acompañada de su padre
  • A play by Shakespeare -> una obra de Shakespeare
  • It was written by Pinter -> fue escrita por Pinter
  • Made by hand -> hecho a mano (indicating means, method)
  • To travel by car/train -> viajar en coche/tren
  • To pay by credit card -> pagar con tarjeta de crédito
  • By moonlight -> a la luz de la luna
  • I’ll begin by introducing myself -> empezaré por presentarme
  • By chance -> por casualidad (owing to, from)
  • She’s Spanish by birth -> es española de nacimiento
  • He had two children by his second wife -> tuvo dos hijos con o de su segunda mujer
  • By specializing, he has limited his options -> al especializarse, ha restringido sus posibilidades
  • By that clock it’s almost half past -> según ese reloj son casi y media (according to)
  • By the look of things -> por lo visto o al parecer
  • That’s fine by me -> por mí no hay problema
  • I swear by Almighty God ->
  • By God you’ll be sorry you said that! -> te juro que te vas a arrepentir de haber dicho eso
  • We’re paid by the hour -> nos pagan por hora(s)
  • They make them by the thousand -> hacen miles y miles de ellos
  • She broke the record by several seconds -> batió el récord en o por varios segundos (indicating extent of difference)
  • One by one -> uno por uno (indicating gradual progression)
  • They went in two by two -> entraron de dos en dos
  • Little by little -> poco a poco, de poco a poco
  • Multiply two by three -> multiplica dos por tres
  • Divide six by three -> divide seis por o entre tres
  • North by northeast -> nornor(d)este (in compass directions)
  • By oneself -> solo (alone, without assistance)
  • I need to be by myself -> necesito estar solo o a solas
  • They do their homework by themselves -> hacen los deberes solos
2. A, en algún paraje. (Matemáticas)
  • By the river’s side -> a la orilla del río
3. Con, partícula que denota la diferencia de dos cosas cotejadas entre sí.
4. A: de, con, en.
  • By the laws of Castile -> a ley de Castilla
  • By stealth -> a hurtadillas
  • By dint of -> a fuerza de
  • By all means -> absolutamente, cueste lo que cueste
  • By no means -> de ningún modo
  • By much -> con mucho
  • I always keep some money by me -> siempre llevo algo de dinero encima (to hand)
  • By this time -> en este tiempo
  • He told her to be home by eleven -> le dijo que volviera antes de las once (not later than)
  • They should be there by now -> ya deberían estar allí
  • Will it be ready by 5? -> ¿estará listo para las 5? By the time he arrived, Ann had left, cuando llegó, Ann se había ido
5. Cerca, junto; al lado de, junto a (at the side of, near to).
  • Come and sit by me -> ven a sentarte a mi lado o junto a mí
  • It’s right by the door -> está justo al lado de la puerta
  • By day/night -> de día/noche (during, at)
  • Rome by night -> Roma de noche
adjetivo
  • To sit by the fire -> sentarse cerca del fuego
6. A sola
adverbio & sustantivo
7. Por, partícula con que se expresa el juramento. (Marina) (n)
  • To swear by God -> jurar por Dios
8. A la mano. (n)
9. Por, partícula que se usa en los ruegos o súplica (n)
adverbio & sustantivo
10. De. (Marina) (n)
  • He is abhorred by everybody -> es aborrecido de todos
  • By this time twelve months -> de aquí a un año
  • By day, by night -> de día, de noche
  • By proxy -> por poder, por procuración
adverbio
11. Cerca.
  • My house is hard by -> mi casa está aquí cerca
12. Presente, delante.
  • By and by -> pronto, luego, de aquí a poco, ahora
  • By and by they came to the clearing -> al poco rato llegaron al claro
  • It’s going to rain by and by -> va a llover dentro de poco
13. Al lado de.
  • By reaso -> o by reason that, porque
  • By reason of -> a causa de, a fuerza de
  • By then -> para entonces, en ese tiempo, o antes de él
  • By the way -> (1) en el camino, junto al camino, o cerca de él; (2) de paso; entre paréntesis
  • By and large -> por lo general, en general
  • By oneself -> solo, aparte
  • Set it by itself -> póngalo Vd
  • By and large -> por todos conceptos, de todos modos
  • Let me by! -> ¡déjenme pasar
  • She rushed by without seeing me -> pasó corriendo y no me vió
  • They watched the parade march by -> vieron pasar el desfile
  • To stand by -> (1) sostener, defender, apoyar; (2) (Mar.) mantenerse cerca, estar o quedarse allí; estar listo, pronto o preparado
  • I put a little money by each week -> ahorro un poco de dinero cada semana (aside, in reserve)
  • Call/stop by on your way to work -> pasa por casa de camino al trabajo (to somebody’s residence)
Por (indicating agent, cause) (with passive verbs).., juro por Dios Todopoderoso (in oaths). Por (indicating rate).(Mat.) a un lado, aparte.
sustantivo
1. Asunto accidental o el que no es el objeto principal de la atención.
  • By the de paso; entre paréntesis; escríbese también -> by the bye

by [baɪ]
When by is the second element in a phrasal verb, eg go by, stand by, look up the verb. When it is part of a set combination, eg by chance, by degrees, by half, look up the other word.
preposition
1 (close to) al lado de; junto a
the house by the church la casa que está al lado de or junto a la iglesia; come and sit by me ven y siéntate a mi lado or junto a mí; I've got it by me lo tengo a mi lado; "where's the bank?" — "it's by the post office" —¿dónde está el banco? —está al lado de or junto a la oficina de correos
sitting by the fire
the house by the river la casa que hay junto al río; a holiday by the sea unas vacaciones en la costa
2 (via) por
he came in by the back door/by the window entró por la puerta de atrás/por la ventana; which route did you come by? ¿por dónde or por qué camino or por qué ruta viniste?; I went by Dover fui por Dover
3 (past) por delante de
she walked by me pasó por delante de mí; he rushed by me without seeing me pasó deprisa por delante de mí sin verme; we drove by the cathedral pasamos con el coche por delante de la catedral
4 (during)
by day de día; by night de noche; by day he's a bank clerk and by night he's a security guard de día es un empleado de banco y de noche es guarda de seguridad; a postcard of London by night una postal nocturna de Londres
5 (in expressions of time) (not later than) para
we must be there by four o'clock tenemos que estar allí para las cuatro; can you finish it by tomorrow? ¿puedes terminarlo para mañana?; I'll be back by midnight estaré de vuelta antes de or para la medianoche; applications must be submitted by 21 April las solicitudes deben presentarse antes del 21 de abril
by the time I got there it was too late cuando llegué ya era demasiado tarde
it'll be ready by the time you get back estará listo para cuando regreses
by that time or by then I knew para entonces ya lo sabía
(in year, on date, on day)
by tomorrow/Tuesday, I'll be in France mañana/el martes ya estaré en Francia; by yesterday it was clear that ... ayer ya se veía claro que ...; by 30 September we had spent £500 a 30 de septiembre habíamos gastado 500 libras; by 1998 the figure had reached ... en 1998 la cifra había llegado a ...; by 2010 the figure will have reached ... hacia el año 2010 la cifra habrá llegado a ...
6 (indicating amount or rate)
to reduce sth by a third reducir algo en una tercera parte; to rent a house by the month alquilar una casa por meses; letters were arriving by the sackload las cartas llegaban a montones; it seems to be getting bigger by the minute/day parece que va creciendo minuto a minuto/día a día
to sell sth by the dozen vender algo por docenas
we get paid by the hour nos pagan por horas
we sell by the kilo vendemos por kilos
we charge by the kilometre cobramos por kilómetro
little by little poco a poco
one by one uno tras otro; uno a uno
two by two de dos en dos
7 (indicating agent, cause) por
the thieves were caught by the police los ladrones fueron capturados por la policía; la policía capturó a los ladrones; surrounded by enemies rodeado de enemigos; a painting by Picasso un cuadro de Picasso; who's that song by? ¿de quién es esa canción?; he had a daughter by his first wife tuvo una hija con su primera mujer
8 (indicating transport, method etc)
by air [+travel] en avión; [+send] por avión; por vía aérea
by bus/car en autobús/coche
to pay by cheque pagar con cheque
made by hand hecho a mano
by land por tierra
by the light of the moon/a candle a la luz de la luna/de una vela
by rail or train en tren
by sea por mar
9 (with gerund)
by working hard a fuerza de mucho trabajar; trabajando mucho; he ended by saying that ... terminó diciendo que ...
/by leaving early/ he missed the rush /by saving hard/ he managed to buy a small flat
10 (according to) según
by my watch it's five o'clock según mi reloj son las cinco; by my calculations según mis cálculos
by what you say
to call sth by its proper name llamar algo por su nombre; it's all right by me por mí no hay problema or está bien; if that's okay by you si no tienes inconveniente
that's fine by me
11 (measuring difference)
she missed the plane by a few minutes perdió el avión por unos minutos; we beat them to Joe's house by five minutes llegamos a casa de Joe cinco minutos antes que ellos; broader by a metre un metro más ancho
he's taller than me by an inch
she's lighter than her brother by only a couple of pounds pesa solo un par de libras menos que su hermano; it's too short by a metre es un metro más corto de lo que tendría que ser; it missed me by inches no me dio por un pelo; me pasó rozando
12 (in measurements, sums)
a room 3 metres by 4 una habitación de 3 metros por 4
to divide by dividir por or entre
to multiply by multiplicar por
13
by oneself solo
he was all by himself estaba solo; I did it all by myself lo hice yo solo; don't leave the two of them alone by themselves no los dejes solos
14 (with compass point)
north by northeast nornordeste; south by southwest sudsudoeste; sursuroeste
15 (in oaths) por
I swear by Almighty God juro por Dios Todopoderoso; by heaven por Dios
in set expressions by the [by]([e]) by the by(e), I forgot to tell you that ... he told me by the by(e)
adverb
1 (past)
a train hurtled by pasó un tren a toda velocidad
they wouldn't let me by no me dejaban pasar
she rushed by without stopping pasó a toda prisa, sin pararse
to [rush] by
2 (in set expressions)
by and by
I'll be with you by and by enseguida estoy contigo; you'll be sorry by and by no tardarás en arrepentirte; by and by we heard voices al poco rato oímos unas voces
close or hard by muy cerca
by and large en general; por lo general
to put sth by poner algo a un lado

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