Spanish Plural Noun Forms
Just like in English, Spanish nouns can be singular or plural. Noun endings tell you the number (singular or plural) of the noun you are talking about.
Spanish plural nouns will almost always end in -s or -es. Here are the rules (and, of course, exceptions) you need to know to pluralize Spanish nouns.
Nouns that End in a Vowel
1. Just Add -s
Rule: If a singular noun ends in an unstressed vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or the stressed vowels á, é o ó, add -s to the end of the word.
2. Add -s or -es
Rule: If a singular noun ends in í or ú, you can either just add -s to pluralize the word, or you can add -es. The -es plural form is considered to be a bit fancier.
|Singular||-s Plural||-es Plural|
There are a few exceptions to the above rule. Here they are:
Nouns that End in a Consonant
1. Add -es
Rule: If a singular noun ends in a vowel plus y or the consonants l, r, n, d, z, j, s, x, or ch, add -es.
- If a singular noun ends in z, you must change the z to a c before adding -es.
2. Add -s
Rule: If a singular noun ends in a consonant cluster (more than one consonant together) or a vowel plus a consonant other than l, r, n, d, z, j, s, x, or ch, add -s.
Ready for the exceptions? Here they come! Keep in mind that many of the words below are specialized or technical words, so you won't come across them too often!
- If a singular noun ends in -s or -x, has more than one syllable, and the last syllable is unstressed, the singular and plural forms are the same.
- If a singular noun ends in -l, -r, -n, -d, -z, -j and is a palabra esdrújula (a word with three more syllables that is accented on the third-to-last syllable), the singular and plural forms are the same.
- If the second word in a singular compound noun is a plural noun, the singular and plural forms are the same.