Spanish Plural Noun Forms

Overview

Just like in English, Spanish nouns can be singular or plural. Noun endings tell you the number (singular or plural) of the noun you are talking about.

Spanish plural nouns will almost always end in -s or -es. Here are the rules (and, of course, exceptions) you need to know to pluralize Spanish nouns.

Nouns that End in a Vowel

1. Just Add -s

Rule: If a singular noun ends in an unstressed vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or the stressed vowels á, é o ó, add -s to the end of the word.

SingularPlural
la pera
 
las peras
 
la bota
 
las botas
 
el sonido
 
los sonidos
 
el panti
 
los pantis
 
el café
 
los cafés
 
el papá
 
los papás
 
el buró
 
los burós
 

There are a few exceptions to the above rule. Here they are:

  • The plural of faralá  (flounce) is faralaes .
  • The plural of no  (no) is noes .
  • The plural of yo  (I) is yoes  or yos .

2. Add -s or -es

Rule: If a singular noun ends in í or ú, you can either just add -s to pluralize the word, or you can add -es. The -es plural form is considered to be a bit fancier.

Singular-s Plural-es Plural
tisú
 
tisús
 
tisúes
 
tabú
 
tabús
 
tabúes
 
israelí
 
israelís
 
israelíes
 
marroquí
 
marroquís
 
marroquíes
 

There are a few exceptions to the above rule. Here they are:

  • The plural of   (yes) is always es .
  • The plurals of loanwords (words that have come into Spanish from other languages) that end in í or ú are formed by simply adding an -s to the end of the word. Examples: popurrís  (potpourris), menús  (menus)

Nouns that End in a Consonant

1. Add -es

Rule: If a singular noun ends in a vowel plus y or the consonants l, r, n, d, z, j, s, x, or ch, add -es.

  • If a singular noun ends in z, you must change the z to a c before adding -es.
SingularPlural
el rey
 
los reyes
 
el panel
 
los paneles
 
el color
 
los colores
 
el botón
 
los botones
 
el césped
 
los céspedes
 
la luz
 
las luces
 
el reloj
 
los relojes
 
el mes
 
los meses
 
el reloj
 
los relojes
 
el fax
 
los faxes
 
el sándwich
 
los sándwiches
 

2. Add -s

Rule: If a singular noun ends in a consonant cluster (more than one consonant together) or a vowel plus a consonant other than l, r, n, d, z, j, s, x, or ch, add -s.

SingularPlural
el iceberg
 
los icebergs
 
el esnob
 
los esnobs
 
el zigzag
 
los zigzags
 
el crac
 
los cracs
 
el mamut
 
los mamuts
 

There are a few exceptions to the above rule. Here they are:

  • The plural of club  (club) is clubes .
  • The plural of álbum  (album) is álbumes .
  • The singular and plural forms of words ending in -st or -zt are the same. Examples: el test , los test 

Exceptional Exceptions

Ready for the exceptions? Here they come! Keep in mind that many of the words below are specialized or technical words, so you won't come across them too often!

  • If a singular noun ends in -s or -x, has more than one syllable, and the last syllable is unstressed, the singular and plural forms are the same.
SingularPlural
el análisis
 
los análisis
 
el jueves
 
los jueves
 
el tórax
 
los tórax
 
  • If a singular noun ends in -l, -r, -n, -d, -z, -j and is a palabra esdrújula  (a word with three more syllables that is accented on the third-to-last syllable), the singular and plural forms are the same.
SingularPluralEnglish
el polisíndeton
 
polisíndeton
 
polysyndeton(s)
  • If the second word in a singular compound noun is a plural noun, the singular and plural forms are the same.
SingularPluralEnglish
el ciempiés
 
los ciempiés
 
centipede(s)
el pasapuré
 
los pasapuré
 
hand mill(s)

Take a practice quiz!

Practice what you know with our quiz tool.

Did this page answer your question?