Language Guide
Numbers
Spanish Plural Noun Forms

Spanish Plural Noun Forms

Quick Answer

Spanish nouns can be singular or plural, and Spanish plural nouns will almost always end in -s or -es.

Here are the rules (and, of course, exceptions) you need to know to pluralize Spanish nouns.

Nouns that End in a Vowel

Let's first take a look at the rules for words that end in a vowel.

1. Just Add -s

Rule: If a singular noun ends in an unstressed vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or the stressed vowels á, é or ó, add -s to the end of a singular noun to make it plural.

Here are some examples.

SingularPlural
la pera
 
las peras
 
la bota
 
las botas
 
el sonido
 
los sonidos
 
el panti
 
los pantis
 
el café
 
los cafés
 
el papá
 
los papás
 
el buró
 
los burós
 

There are a few exceptions to the above rule. Here are some you're likely to come across:

  • The plural of no  (no) is noes .
  • The plural of yo  (I) can be yoes  or yos .

2. Add -s or -es

Rule: If a singular noun ends in í or ú, you can add -s or -es to pluralize the word. The -es plural form is considered to be a bit fancier.

Here are some examples.

Singular-s Plural-es Plural
tisú
 
tisús
 
tisúes
 
tabú
 
tabús
 
tabúes
 
israelí
 
israelís
 
israelíes
 
marroquí
 
marroquís
 
marroquíes
 

There are a few exceptions to the above rule. Here are some you're likely to come across:

  • The plural of   (yes) is always es .
  • The plurals of loanwords (words that have come into Spanish from other languages) that end in í or ú are formed by simply adding an -s to the end of the word. For example: popurrís  (potpourris), menús  (menus)

Nouns that End in a Consonant

Now that you've got the rules for words ending in a vowel down, let's learn about words that end in a consonant.

1. Add -es

Rule: If a singular noun ends in a vowel plus y or the consonants l, r, n, d, z, j, s, x, or ch, add -es.

Here are some examples.

SingularPlural
el rey
 
los reyes
 
el panel
 
los paneles
 
el color
 
los colores
 
el botón
 
los botones
 
el césped
 
los céspedes
 
la luz
 
las luces
 
el reloj
 
los relojes
 
el mes
 
los meses
 
el reloj
 
los relojes
 
el fax
 
los faxes
 
el sándwich
 
los sándwiches
 
  • If a singular noun ends in z, you must change the z to a c before adding -es.

2. Add -s

Rule: If a singular noun ends in a consonant cluster (more than one consonant together) or a vowel plus a consonant other than l, r, n, d, z, j, s, x, or ch, add -s.

Here are some examples.

SingularPlural
el iceberg
 
los icebergs
 
el esnob
 
los esnobs
 
el zigzag
 
los zigzags
 
el crac
 
los cracs
 
el mamut
 
los mamuts
 

There are a few exceptions to the above rule. Here are some you're likely to come across:

  • The plural of club  (club) is clubes .
  • The plural of álbum  (album) is álbumes .
  • The singular and plural forms of words ending in st or zt are the same. Examples: el test , los test 

Exceptional Exceptions

Ready for more exceptions? Here they come! Keep in mind that many of the words below are specialized or technical words, so you won't come across them too often!

Rule: If a singular noun ends in s or x, has more than one syllable, and the last syllable is unstressed, the singular and plural forms are the same.

Here are some examples.

SingularPlural
el análisis
 
los análisis
 
el jueves
 
los jueves
 
el tórax
 
los tórax
 

Rule: If the second word in a singular compound noun is a plural noun, the singular and plural forms are the same.

Here are some examples.

SingularPlural
el ciempiés
 
los ciempiés
 
el pasapuré
 
los pasapuré
 

If a singular noun ends in l, r, n, d, z, j and is a palabra esdrújula  (a word with three more syllables that is accented on the third-to-last syllable), the singular and plural forms are the same.

Here is an example.

SingularPlural
el polisíndeton
 
polisíndeton
 

Take a practice quiz!

Practice what you know with our quiz tool.

Did this page answer your question?