Present Participles in Spanish
Present participles are verb forms used to express continuous, or ongoing, actions in Spanish. The present participle in Spanish ends in -ndo, which is the equivalent to the English ending -ing.
Check out the present participles in the examples below.
A Note on the Term Gerund
In Spanish, the verb form that ends in -ndo is called the gerundio . It is used in compound verb forms, such as Estoy nadando. (I'm swimming.), as well as adverbially, as in Salió corriendo. (literally, He left running.)
In English the gerund is the noun form of a verb, such as swimming in the sentence Swimming is fun. (Es divertido nadar. ). In Spanish, this form is translated using an infinitive verb, such as nadar.
The term used for the -ing form used in compound verbs in English is the present participle.
How to Form Regular Spanish Gerundios
To form the gerundio of regular verbs, most of the time you just drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and add -ando to the stem of -ar verbs and -iendo to the stem of -er and -ir verbs.
There are a several types of irregular gerundios.
1. Yendo Present Participles
If the stem of an -er or -ir verb ends in a vowel, -iendo becomes -yendo. Check out the examples below.
Whenever an unstressed i appears between two vowels, the spelling always changes to a y.
2. Irregular ir
3. More Irregular Spellings: Ñendo and Llendo Present Participles
If the stem of an -er or -ir verb ends in -ll or -ñ, -iendo becomes -endo.
4. Stem Changing Present Participles
There are also some verbs that need a stem change before adding the gerundio ending to maintain pronunciation:
- Any -ir verb that has a stem change in the third person preterite (e->i, or o->u) will have the same stem-change in the gerundio. The -er verb poder also maintains its preterite stem change in the gerundio.
|Infinitive||Third Person Preterite Form||Gerundio|