Past Participle in Spanish
A past participle (participio pasado) is a very useful verb form that can function as an adjective or as part of a perfect tense when used in conjunction with the verb haber.
Regular Past Participle Spanish Forms
To form the past participle of a regular verb, you drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and add -ado to the stem of -ar verbs and -ido to the stem of -er and -ir verbs. This is equivalent to adding -ed to many verbs in English.
How to Form the Regular Past Participles
|Verb Type||Infinitive Example||Stem Example||Past Participle Example|
Irregular Past Participle Spanish Forms
Quite a few Spanish verbs have irregular past participles. In the table below you'll find a few of the most common ones. For a a more exhaustive list of irregular past participles, click here.
Past Participle Uses
1. Perfect Tenses
There are quite a few perfect tenses in Spanish, and they all use past participles.
Many of the perfect tenses use a version of the following formula:
haber + past participle
The examples below show a past participle being used in the present perfect and the future perfect.
Past participles are commonly used as adjectives in Spanish. When this is the case, they must agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. The following examples show past participles being used as adjectives.
Predicative adjectives are adjectives used in conjunction with a linking verb, such as ser (to be), estar (to be) , or parecer (to seem). Predicative adjectives must also agree with the nouns they modify in gender and number.