Descriptive Adjectives in Spanish
As the name may suggest, descriptive adjectives describe some quality of a noun.
In Spanish, adjectives must agree with the noun (or pronoun) they describe in gender and in number. This means that if the noun an adejective describes is feminine, the adjective must be feminine, and if that same noun is also plural, the adjective will be feminine AND plural as well.
|Noun||Noun is feminine and plural|
|Noun and Adjective||Noun and adjective both feminine and plural|
Adjectives are usually listed in their masculine singular form in dictionaries, so it is important to know how to match these masculine singular adjectives to whatever noun you happen to be describing. Most adjectives end in -o, -e, - or a consonant in their singular masculine forms. Below you will find the rules for matching these adjectives to their respective nouns in gender and number.
Adjectives that End in -o
Adjectives that end in -o in the masculine singular form have four possible endings, one each for masculine, feminine, singular, and plural. These types of adjectives make up the majority of the adjectives in Spanish.
-o Adjective Endings
- To change the masculine singular form of an adjective to match a feminine noun, replace the -o ending with -a.
- To make an -o adjective plural in the masculine or feminine form, add -s to the singular ending.
Adjectives that End in -e or -ista
Adjectives that end in -e or -ista do not change according to gender. They agree with both masculine and feminine nouns in the singular form, though they do change for number.
|Example||Gender of Noun and Adjective|
- To make an -e adjective plural, add an -s to the singular ending.
-e Adjective Endings
Adjectives that end in a consonant
Most adjectives that end in a consonant do not change according to gender, but do change for number, just like adjectives that end in -e.
- To make an adjective that ends in a consonant plural, add -es to the singular ending.
-ista Adjective Endings
Exception: Adjectives that end in -z in the singular, change the -z to a -c before adding the plural ending.
Exception: Adjectives that end in -or, -ón, or -ín do have feminine forms. Simply add -a or -as to the masculine singular form and delete the written accent if necessary.
Exception: Adjectives ending in -erior do not have a feminine form.
Now, check out this fancy summary table!