ASK A QUESTION "May I go to the bathroom"?
I am referring to being polite. Puedo is more like am I able, or can I.
May I go to the bathroom
I think you can start with : "Le importa...?" or "Podría....." If u think puedo is more like can I and you want to be more polite O(∩_∩)O~~
I don't think there's an equivalent to "may." "Puedo ir al baño?" is perfectly polite.
You could say something like, "Me permite ir al baño, por favor?".